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Open AccessArticle

Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Large Updated Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

The Key Lab, Cancer Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
South II Department, The General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces, Beijing 100039, China
Department of Rheumatology and Nephrology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing 100142, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3734-3746;
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 18 September 2014
The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed and Embase databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption) was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93–1.36). In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.74) and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00–1.54), and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13–1.93). There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger’s test = 0.03). Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; gastric cancer; cohort study; meta-analysis coffee; gastric cancer; cohort study; meta-analysis
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Xie, F.; Wang, D.; Huang, Z.; Guo, Y. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Large Updated Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Nutrients 2014, 6, 3734-3746.

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