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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin E Supplementation in Chemical Colorectal Carcinogenesis: A Two-Edged Knife

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto14049-900, Brazil
2
Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14049-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2014, 6(8), 3214-3229; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6083214
Received: 2 April 2014 / Revised: 5 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E Nutrition and Metabolism)
This work investigated the effects of Vitamin E (VE) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) incidence, oxidative stress parameters (serum and hepatic VE concentration, and homocysteine, glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels), and expression of both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) in experimental colorectal carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) twice a week, for two weeks (40 mg/kg), except for the Control group. Animals were separated into groups that received different amounts of VE in the diet: 0 IU (0×), 75 IU (recommended daily intake, RDI), 225 IU (3× RDI), or 1500 IU (20× RDI), during (dDMH) or after (aDMH) administration of carcinogen. The 0×dDMH and 3×dDMH groups showed decreased serum VE levels. Hepatic VE concentration was higher in 3×aDMH as compared with the other groups. All the groups, except the Control and the 0×aDMH groups, had reduced GSH levels. The 0×dDMH, 0×aDMH, and 20×aDMH groups exhibited increased MDA levels. The aDMH groups had higher ACF incidence and PCNA expression. The 0×aDMH group presented higher ACF rate, followed by 20×aDMH. Moreover, the 3×aDMH group displayed reduced ACF incidence and COX2 expression. Multivariate analysis revealed that GSH modulated homocysteine levels and COX2. These results suggested that 1500 IU of VE is hazardous, whereas 225 IU of VE has beneficial effects on chemical colorectal carcinogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin E; colorectal carcinogenesis; aberrant crypt foci; oxidative stress; PCNA; cyclooxygenase-2; experimental vitamin E; colorectal carcinogenesis; aberrant crypt foci; oxidative stress; PCNA; cyclooxygenase-2; experimental
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Cohen, C.; Cardoso, J.F.R.; Garcia, S.B.; Vannucchi, H. Vitamin E Supplementation in Chemical Colorectal Carcinogenesis: A Two-Edged Knife. Nutrients 2014, 6, 3214-3229.

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