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Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

School of Medicine, Federal University of Uberlandia, Av. Pará, nº 1720 Bloco 2U, Campus Umuarama, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais 38400-902, Brazil
Centre for Physical Exercise and Nutrition Metabolism, UNESP School of Medicine, Public Health Department, Botucatu City, São Paulo 18618-900, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4191-4199;
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6%) or glucose plus fructose (8%–10%) beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrate; gastrointestinal problems; diet; exercise carbohydrate; gastrointestinal problems; diet; exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Oliveira, E.P.; Burini, R.C. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4191-4199.

AMA Style

De Oliveira EP, Burini RC. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress. Nutrients. 2014; 6(10):4191-4199.

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Oliveira, Erick P., and Roberto C. Burini 2014. "Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress" Nutrients 6, no. 10: 4191-4199.

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