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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing

School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 399-412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu4050399
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
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Abstract

Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A cross-sectional matched pair design was used to compare women who habitually wore concealing clothing with women who dressed according to western norms. Each premenopausal hijab-wearing woman (n = 11) was matched by age, height, weight and skin tone with a western-dressed woman. Subjects were tested by hand grip dynamometry to assess muscular strength and by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus to assess bone status. Nutritional intake was obtained by 24 h recall. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status was determined in seven matched pairs. The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p = 0.01). Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise. Bone status did not differ between groups (p = 0.9). Dietary intake of vitamin D was lower in the hijab-wearers (316 ± 353 vs. 601 ± 341 IU/day, p = 0.001). This pilot study suggests that women living in a northern maritime location appear to be at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and therefore should consider taking vitamin D supplements. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; diet; northern latitude; bone status; muscle strength; hijab; clothing; Muslim; women vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; diet; northern latitude; bone status; muscle strength; hijab; clothing; Muslim; women
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Ojah, R.C.I.; Welch, J.M. Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing. Nutrients 2012, 4, 399-412.

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