Competitive Golf: How Longer Courses Are Changing Athletes and Their Approach to the Game
2. Energy Calculation
2.1. General Considerations
2.2. Club Transportation
2.4. Hitting the Golf Ball
3. Energy System Utilization
3.1. Anerobic Contribution
3.2. Aerobic Contribution
- Fifty per cent of Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) values stated in the studies are within the range of moderate intensity 3–5.9.
- Values for %HRmax are within light intensity (50–63%) and moderate-intensity (64–76%) using the mean range for moderate-intensity as 101–119 bpm
- Average VO2 was close to the moderate threshold of 10.5–20.7 mL/kg/min.
4. Physical Characteristics
4.1. Age and Height
4.2. Strength and Distance
5.1. General Considerations
5.2. High School
6. Nutritional Strategies during Training and Competition
6.1. General Considerations
- On golf days or strength training days carbohydrate needs should be 5–7 g/kg/day.
- On aerobic training days, carbohydrate needs are higher at 6–10 g/kg/day.
- Total daily carbohydrate needs should be between 30–45 g/kg ffm/day.
- And no less than 30 kcal/kg ffm/day to prevent Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) especially in female athletes.
6.3. Fueling Strategies Prior to Training, during Training, and during Recovery of Golf
- Approx. 1–4 h prior to golf or exercise carbohydrate load with 1–4 g/kg.
- Golfers can snack on the course and should consume 30–60 g of carbohydrate/hour during a round of golf.
- If a session of weights or endurance followed by a round of golf in the afternoon need carbohydrate recovery of 1 gm/kg/h for 4 h.
- If a single session 15–25 g of carbohydrate within 1–2 h after training sessions.
- Protein intake of 1.2 to 2.0 g/kg/d with the less skilled players at the lower limit and increasing intake as the distance becomes a priority.
- Then, 15–25 g of protein within the first 2 h of completing a training session.
- Protein sources should include Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA).
6.5. Hydration and Heat Acclimitization
7.1. General Considerations
7.2. Carbohydrate and Caffeine
7.3. Cricket and Pistol Shooting
8. Ergogenic Supplements
8.4. Vitamin D
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Skill Level||Gender||Distance (yds)||Distance |
|High school||Boys age 15–18||6500–7100||5943–6492|
|Girls age 15–18||5600–5850||5120–5349|
|Mean Distance Walked|
|Crowell||1970||M||9||Pull cart||4.58 +/− 0.44||411||2982 *||3108–3550 **|
|9||Carry||4.02 +/− 0.52||450||2982 *||3108–3550 **|
|Gabellieri||2011||M||18||Carry||8.7 +/− 0.6||1202||6067 *||6217–7100|
|Dear||2010||M||9||Carry||4.4 +/− 0.36||511||2504||3108–3550 **|
|Zunzer||2013||M||18||Mixed||10.5 +/− 0.94||926||5525–5919||6217–7100|
|F||18||9.89 +/− 0.81||556||4871–5307||5669–6035|
|M||9||5.32 +/− 0.48||520||2762–2959||3108–3550 **|
|F||9||5.25 +/− 0.16||273||2435–2653||2834–3017 **|
|Club Velocity (mph)||Power (amps)||Energy (kcal/hour)|
|Transportation||Average Heart Rate (bpm)||Average VO2|
|Respiratory Exchange Ratio|
|Summary||Level of Evidence|
|Golf course distance walked is longer than published yardage||Many factors affect the total distance including longer courses, shot dispersion, and inter-tee distance||Strong: Multiple studies reviewed pertaining to golf courses and using golfers|
|Walking the course utilizes the most energy and the major energy system utilized playing golf is aerobic respiration||Of the 3 causes of energy expenditure: Club transportation, hitting the ball, walking the course uses the most energy||Strong/Good: Multiple studies reviewed using golfers, but related sports used to evaluate the anaerobic contribution to swing the golf club|
|Aerobic training improves acclimatization and performance||Endurance trained athletes showed less fatigue than untrained counterparts and a longer time to exhaustion||Good: Study reviewed in related sports at similar VO2 max as playing golf|
|Optimizing glucose and hydration in competition increases endurance, improves performance, and improves putting||Dehydration can cause fatigue, decrease shot accuracy and distance. Golf uses FT and ST fibers that utilize glycogen at an accelerated rate at submaximal levels||Strong/Good: Dehydration and putting studies performed on golfers. Related sports used to evaluate glycogen use in muscle fibers|
|At higher competitive levels strength and distance become more important||Strokes gained from the long game and driving distance are key determinants of success at elite competitive levels for both men and women||Strong: Studies reviewed using golfers|
|Caffeine supplementation improves performance||Caffeine improves club accuracy, driving distance, and overall score but its beneficial effect on putting is debatable||Strong: Studies reviewed using golfers|
|Menthol and cold slushies improve acclimatization and performance in hot environments||Both Menthol and slushies reduce fatigue and increase TTE. Menthol maintained peak power for short periods.|
Slushies lowered core temperature
|Good: studies reviewed on endurance athletes|
|Creatine supplementation in addition to a strength regimen improves performance||Creatine supplementation with a strength regimen increased driving distance||Strong: Study reviewed using golfers|
|Golfers that travel frequently are prone to infection due to alterations in diet and sleep. Vitamin D can inhibit URTIs in athletes||Vitamin D has been shown to inhibit infections but the level for athletes is higher than the current IOM recommendations||Good: Studies reviewed on endurance athletes|
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Zoffer, M. Competitive Golf: How Longer Courses Are Changing Athletes and Their Approach to the Game. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1732. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091732
Zoffer M. Competitive Golf: How Longer Courses Are Changing Athletes and Their Approach to the Game. Nutrients. 2022; 14(9):1732. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091732Chicago/Turabian Style
Zoffer, Matthew. 2022. "Competitive Golf: How Longer Courses Are Changing Athletes and Their Approach to the Game" Nutrients 14, no. 9: 1732. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091732