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Article

Effect of Cheese Intake on Cardiovascular Diseases and Cardiovascular Biomarkers

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China
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Academic Editors: Rosa Casas and Lindsay Brown
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142936
Received: 14 June 2022 / Revised: 11 July 2022 / Accepted: 14 July 2022 / Published: 18 July 2022
Background: A growing number of cohort studies revealed an inverse association between cheese intake and cardiovascular diseases, yet the causal relationship is unclear. Objective: To assess the causal relationship between cheese intake, and cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular biomarkers. Methods: A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis based on publicly available genome-wide association studies was employed to infer the causal relationship. The effect estimates were calculated using the random-effects inverse-variance-weighted method. Results: Cheese intake per standard deviation increase causally reduced the risks of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34–0.63; p = 1.02 × 10−6), heart failure (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49–0.79; p = 0.0001), coronary heart disease (OR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53–0.79; p = 2.01 × 10−5), hypertension (OR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.53–0.84; p = 0.001), and ischemic stroke (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63–0.91; p = 0.003). Suggestive evidence of an inverse association between cheese intake and peripheral artery disease was also observed. No associations were observed for atrial fibrillation, cardiac death, pulmonary embolism, or transient ischemic attack. The better prognosis associated with cheese intake may be explained by lower body mass index (BMI; effect estimate = −0.58; 95% CI, from −0.88 to −0.27; p = 0.0002), waist circumference (effect estimate = −0.49; 95% CI, from −0.76 to −0.23; p = 0.0003), triglycerides (effect estimate = −0.33; 95% CI, from −0.50 to −0.17; p = 4.91 × 10−5), and fasting glucose (effect estimate = −0.20; 95% CI, from −0.33 to −0.07; p = 0.0003). There was suggestive evidence of a positive association between cheese intake and high-density lipoprotein. No influences were observed for blood pressure or inflammation biomarkers. Conclusions: This two-sample MR analysis found causally inverse associations between cheese intake and type 2 diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and ischemic stroke. View Full-Text
Keywords: cheese intake; cardiovascular diseases; biomarkers; Mendelian randomization; causal association cheese intake; cardiovascular diseases; biomarkers; Mendelian randomization; causal association
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, M.-J.; Tan, J.-S.; Gao, X.-J.; Yang, J.-G.; Yang, Y.-J. Effect of Cheese Intake on Cardiovascular Diseases and Cardiovascular Biomarkers. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2936. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142936

AMA Style

Hu M-J, Tan J-S, Gao X-J, Yang J-G, Yang Y-J. Effect of Cheese Intake on Cardiovascular Diseases and Cardiovascular Biomarkers. Nutrients. 2022; 14(14):2936. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142936

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hu, Meng-Jin, Jiang-Shan Tan, Xiao-Jin Gao, Jin-Gang Yang, and Yue-Jin Yang. 2022. "Effect of Cheese Intake on Cardiovascular Diseases and Cardiovascular Biomarkers" Nutrients 14, no. 14: 2936. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142936

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