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Article

Periconceptional Maternal Diet Characterized by High Glycemic Loading Is Associated with Offspring Behavior in NEST

1
Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA
2
Center for Human Health and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
3
Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27701, USA
5
Department of Health Behavior and Policy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
6
Biostatistics and Computational Biology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC 27709, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marloes Dekker Nitert
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093180
Received: 4 August 2021 / Revised: 7 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 13 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Nutrition on Epigenetic Status)
Maternal periconceptional diets have known associations with proper offspring neurodevelopment. Mechanisms for such associations include improper energy/nutrient balances between mother and fetus, as well as altered offspring epigenetics during development due to maternal nutrient and inflammatory status. Using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and assessing offspring temperament with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (n = 325, mean age = 13.9 months), we sought to test whether a maternal periconceptional diet characterized by high glycemic loading (MGL) would affect offspring temperament using adjusted ordinal regression. After limiting false discovery to 10%, offspring born to mothers in tertile 3 of glycemic loading (referent = tertile 1) were more likely to be in the next tertile of anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.51 (1.88–11.07)] and inhibition-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 3.42 (1.49–7.96)]. Male offspring were more likely to exhibit impulsive [OR (95% CI) = 5.55 (1.76–18.33)], anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.41 (1.33–15.30)], sleep dysregulation [OR (95% CI) = 4.14 (1.34–13.16)], empathy [6.68 (1.95–24.40)], and maladaptive behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 9.86 (2.81–37.18)], while females were more likely to exhibit increased anxiety-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 15.02 (3.14–84.27)]. These associations persisted when concurrently modeled with the maternal–Mediterranean dietary pattern. In a subset (n = 142), we also found MGL associated with increased mean methylation of the imprint control region of SGCE/PEG10. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance of maternal dietary patterns on offspring neurodevelopment, offering avenues for prevention options for mothers. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal diet; neurodevelopment; cord blood methylation; child behavior disorders; ADHD attention-deficit disorder; autism spectrum disorder; epigenetics; imprinted genes; glycemic index; glycemic loading maternal diet; neurodevelopment; cord blood methylation; child behavior disorders; ADHD attention-deficit disorder; autism spectrum disorder; epigenetics; imprinted genes; glycemic index; glycemic loading
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alick, C.L.; Maguire, R.L.; Murphy, S.K.; Fuemmeler, B.F.; Hoyo, C.; House, J.S. Periconceptional Maternal Diet Characterized by High Glycemic Loading Is Associated with Offspring Behavior in NEST. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3180. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093180

AMA Style

Alick CL, Maguire RL, Murphy SK, Fuemmeler BF, Hoyo C, House JS. Periconceptional Maternal Diet Characterized by High Glycemic Loading Is Associated with Offspring Behavior in NEST. Nutrients. 2021; 13(9):3180. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093180

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alick, Candice L., Rachel L. Maguire, Susan K. Murphy, Bernard F. Fuemmeler, Cathrine Hoyo, and John S. House. 2021. "Periconceptional Maternal Diet Characterized by High Glycemic Loading Is Associated with Offspring Behavior in NEST" Nutrients 13, no. 9: 3180. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093180

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