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Review

United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Safety Review of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

1
U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
2
The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45202, USA
3
Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Evasio Pasini, Francesco S. Dioguardi and Giovanni Corsetti
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2742; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082742
Received: 26 June 2021 / Revised: 4 August 2021 / Accepted: 5 August 2021 / Published: 10 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Nutrition and Metabolism Related to Health and Well Being)
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is marketed in the U.S. as a dietary supplement. USP conducted a comprehensive safety evaluation of GABA by assessing clinical studies, adverse event information, and toxicology data. Clinical studies investigated the effect of pure GABA as a dietary supplement or as a natural constituent of fermented milk or soy matrices. Data showed no serious adverse events associated with GABA at intakes up to 18 g/d for 4 days and in longer studies at intakes of 120 mg/d for 12 weeks. Some studies showed that GABA was associated with a transient and moderate drop in blood pressure (<10% change). No studies were available on effects of GABA during pregnancy and lactation, and no case reports or spontaneous adverse events associated with GABA were found. Chronic administration of GABA to rats and dogs at doses up to 1 g/kg/day showed no signs of toxicity. Because some studies showed that GABA was associated with decreases in blood pressure, it is conceivable that concurrent use of GABA with anti-hypertensive medications could increase risk of hypotension. Caution is advised for pregnant and lactating women since GABA can affect neurotransmitters and the endocrine system, i.e., increases in growth hormone and prolactin levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: γ-amino butyric acid; gamma-amino butyric acid; GABA; safety review; adverse effects; adverse events; dietary supplements; interactions; hypotension; 4-aminobutanoic acid γ-amino butyric acid; gamma-amino butyric acid; GABA; safety review; adverse effects; adverse events; dietary supplements; interactions; hypotension; 4-aminobutanoic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oketch-Rabah, H.A.; Madden, E.F.; Roe, A.L.; Betz, J.M. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Safety Review of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). Nutrients 2021, 13, 2742. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082742

AMA Style

Oketch-Rabah HA, Madden EF, Roe AL, Betz JM. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Safety Review of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2742. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082742

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A., Emily F. Madden, Amy L. Roe, and Joseph M. Betz. 2021. "United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Safety Review of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2742. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082742

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