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Slow but Steady—The Responsiveness of Sympathoadrenal System to a Hypoglycemic Challenge in Ketogenic Diet-Fed Rats

1
The Heart Research Institute, Newtown, NSW 2042, Australia
2
Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082627
Received: 6 July 2021 / Revised: 25 July 2021 / Accepted: 28 July 2021 / Published: 29 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ketogenic Diet and Metabolism)
The sympathoadrenal counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia is critical for individuals with type 1 diabetes due to impaired ability to produce glucagon. Ketogenic diets (KD) are an increasingly popular diabetes management tool; however, the effects of KD on the sympathoadrenal response are largely unknown. Here, we determined the effects of KD-induced ketosis on the sympathoadrenal response to a single insulin-induced hypoglycemic challenge. We investigated how a 3 week KD feeding regimen affected the main components of the sympathoadrenal counterregulatory response: adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA), adrenal gland activity, plasma epinephrine, and brainstem glucose-responsive C1 neuronal activation in anesthetized, nondiabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats on KD had similar blood glucose (BG) levels and elevated ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels compared to the control Chow diet group. All KD rats responded to hypoglycemia with a robust increase in ASNA, which was initiated at significantly lower BG levels compared to Chow-fed rats. The delay in hypoglycemia-induced ASNA increase was concurrent with rapid disappearance of BHB from cerebral and peripheral circulation. Adrenal gland activity paralleled epinephrine and ASNA response. Overall, KD-induced ketosis was associated with initiation of the sympathoadrenal response at lower blood glucose levels; however, the magnitude of the response was not diminished. View Full-Text
Keywords: counterregulatory response; epinephrine; insulin-induced hypoglycemia; ketosis; ketogenic diet; rat model counterregulatory response; epinephrine; insulin-induced hypoglycemia; ketosis; ketogenic diet; rat model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nedoboy, P.E.; Cohen, M.; Farnham, M.M.-J. Slow but Steady—The Responsiveness of Sympathoadrenal System to a Hypoglycemic Challenge in Ketogenic Diet-Fed Rats. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2627. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082627

AMA Style

Nedoboy PE, Cohen M, Farnham MM-J. Slow but Steady—The Responsiveness of Sympathoadrenal System to a Hypoglycemic Challenge in Ketogenic Diet-Fed Rats. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2627. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082627

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nedoboy, Polina E., Myfanwy Cohen, and Melissa M.-J. Farnham. 2021. "Slow but Steady—The Responsiveness of Sympathoadrenal System to a Hypoglycemic Challenge in Ketogenic Diet-Fed Rats" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2627. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082627

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