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Article

Does Each Menstrual Cycle Elicit a Distinct Effect on Olfactory and Gustatory Perception?

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Department of Integrative Gynecology, Obstetrics and Minimally Invasive Gynaecologic Surgery, General Hospital Zabok and Hospital of Croatian Veterans, Bračak 8, 49210 Zabok, Croatia
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Department of Public Health, University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Immunology and Medical Genetics, University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Anaesthesiology, Reanimatology and Intensive Care, General Hospital Koprivnica, Zeljka Salingera 1, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
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Primary Health Centre Zagreb West, Trsje 19b, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Cardiology, General Hospital Bjelovar, Ul. Antuna Mihanovića 8, 43000 Bjelovar, Croatia
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Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital Split, Spinčićeva 1, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Primary Health Center of Split-Dalmatia County, Kavanjinova 2, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Naim Akhtar Khan
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082509
Received: 5 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
The obesity pandemic has brought forth a scientific interest in food intake and sensory perception interactions. Olfactory perception and gustatory perception are very complex and under the influence of many factors, including the menstrual cycle. This study aims to clarify conflicting findings on the influence of the menstrual cycle on olfactory and gustatory perception. Women were assessed during four consecutive phases of one complete cycle (mid-follicular, ovulatory, mid-luteal, and late luteal phases (N = 21)), in contrast to women measured across the same phases belonging to two menstrual cycles (N = 29). Additional control groups were men (N = 17), postmenopausal women (N = 14), oral contraceptive users (N = 10), and women with an anovulatory cycle (N = 8). Olfactory threshold, odor discrimination, and identification were tested using the “Sniffin Sticks“ test kit. Suprathreshold intensity and hedonic ratings for sweet, salty, sour, and bitter solutions were assessed. One-way ANOVA and ANOVA for repeated measurements was applied in the analysis, along with linear and trigonometric data fitting and linear mixed models. Linear increases in olfactory discrimination, identification, and overall olfactory performance were observed only in women followed across a complete menstrual cycle. Compared to other groups, these women displayed a cyclic pattern characterized by a predilection for sweet solution; reduced distaste for salty and sour solutions; and increased intensity perception of salty, sour, and bitter solutions towards the end of the cycle. These results suggest that a distinct hormonal milieu of a complete menstrual cycle may be affecting both olfactory and gustatory perception. View Full-Text
Keywords: olfactory perception; gustatory perception; menstrual cycle; oral contraceptives; suprathreshold taste intensity; taste hedonics olfactory perception; gustatory perception; menstrual cycle; oral contraceptives; suprathreshold taste intensity; taste hedonics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stanić, Ž.; Pribisalić, A.; Bošković, M.; Bućan Cvitanić, J.; Boban, K.; Bašković, G.; Bartulić, A.; Demo, S.; Polašek, O.; Kolčić, I. Does Each Menstrual Cycle Elicit a Distinct Effect on Olfactory and Gustatory Perception? Nutrients 2021, 13, 2509. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082509

AMA Style

Stanić Ž, Pribisalić A, Bošković M, Bućan Cvitanić J, Boban K, Bašković G, Bartulić A, Demo S, Polašek O, Kolčić I. Does Each Menstrual Cycle Elicit a Distinct Effect on Olfactory and Gustatory Perception? Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2509. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082509

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stanić, Žana, Ajka Pribisalić, Maria Bošković, Jasna Bućan Cvitanić, Kristina Boban, Gabriela Bašković, Antonija Bartulić, Suzana Demo, Ozren Polašek, and Ivana Kolčić. 2021. "Does Each Menstrual Cycle Elicit a Distinct Effect on Olfactory and Gustatory Perception?" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2509. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082509

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