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Review

Assessment of the Methods Used to Develop Vitamin D and Calcium Recommendations—A Systematic Review of Bone Health Guidelines

1
Charles Perkins Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, D17, The Hub, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2
Centre for Health Systems and Safety Research, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
3
School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, 553 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
4
Charles Perkins Centre, Faculty of Science, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, D17, The Hub, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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School of Medicine and Colorado School of Public Health, Centre for Bioethics and Humanities, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 13080 E. 19th Ave, Mail Stop B137, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helen Croker
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2423; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072423
Received: 2 June 2021 / Revised: 8 July 2021 / Accepted: 10 July 2021 / Published: 15 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Public Health: Principles, Policies, and Practice)
Background: There are numerous guidelines developed for bone health. Yet, it is unclear whether the differences in guideline development methods explain the variability in the recommendations for vitamin D and calcium intake. The objective of this systematic review was to collate and compare recommendations for vitamin D and calcium across bone health guidelines, assess the methods used to form the recommendations, and explore which methodological factors were associated with these guideline recommendations. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other databases indexing guidelines to identify records in English between 2009 and 2019. Guidelines or policy statements on bone health or osteoporosis prevention for generally healthy adults aged ≥40 years were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted recommendations on daily vitamin D and calcium intake, supplement use, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and sunlight exposure; assessed guideline development methods against 25 recommended criteria in the World Health Organization (WHO) handbook for guideline development; and, identified types identified types of evidence underpinning the recommendations. Results: we included 47 eligible guidelines from 733 records: 74% of the guidelines provided vitamin D (200~600–4000 IU/day) and 70% provided calcium (600–1200 mg/day) recommendations, 96% and 88% recommended vitamin D and calcium supplements, respectively, and 70% recommended a specific 25(OH)D concentration. On average, each guideline met 10 (95% CI: 9–12) of the total of 25 methodological criteria for guideline development recommended by the WHO Handbook. There was uncertainty in the association between the methodological criteria and the proportion of guidelines that provided recommendations on daily vitamin D or calcium. Various types of evidence, including previous bone guidelines, nutrient reference reports, systematic reviews, observational studies, and perspectives/editorials were used to underpin the recommendations. Conclusions: There is considerable variability in vitamin D and calcium recommendations and in guideline development methods in bone health guidelines. Effort is required to strengthen the methodological rigor of guideline development and utilize the best available evidence to underpin nutrition recommendations in evidence-based guidelines on bone health. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; calcium; osteoporosis prevention; guideline development methods; evidence-based guidelines; public health vitamin D; calcium; osteoporosis prevention; guideline development methods; evidence-based guidelines; public health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dai, Z.; McKenzie, J.E.; McDonald, S.; Baram, L.; Page, M.J.; Allman-Farinelli, M.; Raubenheimer, D.; Bero, L.A. Assessment of the Methods Used to Develop Vitamin D and Calcium Recommendations—A Systematic Review of Bone Health Guidelines. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2423. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072423

AMA Style

Dai Z, McKenzie JE, McDonald S, Baram L, Page MJ, Allman-Farinelli M, Raubenheimer D, Bero LA. Assessment of the Methods Used to Develop Vitamin D and Calcium Recommendations—A Systematic Review of Bone Health Guidelines. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2423. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072423

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dai, Zhaoli, Joanne E. McKenzie, Sally McDonald, Liora Baram, Matthew J. Page, Margaret Allman-Farinelli, David Raubenheimer, and Lisa A. Bero. 2021. "Assessment of the Methods Used to Develop Vitamin D and Calcium Recommendations—A Systematic Review of Bone Health Guidelines" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2423. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072423

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