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Food Safety and Cross-Contamination of Gluten-Free Products: A Narrative Review
 
 
Article

Microbiota and Metabolomic Patterns in the Breast Milk of Subjects with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet

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Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
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Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02129, USA
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Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Celiac Research Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Theoreo srl, University of Salerno, 84084 Salerno, Italy
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Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Scuola Medica Salernitana, University of Salerno, 84084 Salerno, Italy
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European Biomedical Research Institute of Salerno (EBRIS), Via S. De Renzi, 50, 84125 Salerno, Italy
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CosmosID Inc., Rockville, MD 20850, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nadja Haiden
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072243
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
The intestinal microbiome may trigger celiac disease (CD) in individuals with a genetic disposition when exposed to dietary gluten. Research demonstrates that nutrition during infancy is crucial to the intestinal microbiome engraftment. Very few studies to date have focused on the breast milk composition of subjects with a history of CD on a gluten-free diet. Here, we utilize a multi-omics approach with shotgun metagenomics to analyze the breast milk microbiome integrated with metabolome profiling of 36 subjects, 20 with CD on a gluten-free diet and 16 healthy controls. These analyses identified significant differences in bacterial and viral species/strains and functional pathways but no difference in metabolite abundance. Specifically, three bacterial strains with increased abundance were identified in subjects with CD on a gluten-free diet of which one (Rothia mucilaginosa) has been previously linked to autoimmune conditions. We also identified five pathways with increased abundance in subjects with CD on a gluten-free diet. We additionally found four bacterial and two viral species/strains with increased abundance in healthy controls. Overall, the differences observed in bacterial and viral species/strains and in functional pathways observed in our analysis may influence microbiome engraftment in neonates, which may impact their future clinical outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk microbiome; celiac disease; multi-omics analysis breast milk microbiome; celiac disease; multi-omics analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olshan, K.L.; Zomorrodi, A.R.; Pujolassos, M.; Troisi, J.; Khan, N.; Fanelli, B.; Kenyon, V.; Fasano, A.; Leonard, M.M. Microbiota and Metabolomic Patterns in the Breast Milk of Subjects with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2243. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072243

AMA Style

Olshan KL, Zomorrodi AR, Pujolassos M, Troisi J, Khan N, Fanelli B, Kenyon V, Fasano A, Leonard MM. Microbiota and Metabolomic Patterns in the Breast Milk of Subjects with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2243. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072243

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olshan, Katherine L., Ali R. Zomorrodi, Meritxell Pujolassos, Jacopo Troisi, Nayeim Khan, Brian Fanelli, Victoria Kenyon, Alessio Fasano, and Maureen M. Leonard. 2021. "Microbiota and Metabolomic Patterns in the Breast Milk of Subjects with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2243. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072243

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