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The Effect of A Whey-Protein and Galacto-Oligosaccharides Based Product on Parameters of Sleep Quality, Stress, and Gut Microbiota in Apparently Healthy Adults with Moderate Sleep Disturbances: A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Study

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FrieslandCampina, 3818 LE Amersfoort, The Netherlands
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NIZO, Nutrition & Health, 6710 BA Ede, The Netherlands
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Philips Research, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Megan A. McCrory
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072204
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 27 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
People experiencing sleep problems may benefit from nutrients supporting serotonin metabolism and stress reduction. We studied the effect of a dairy-based product (DP) containing protein, galacto-oligosaccharides, vitamins and minerals, on sleep quality, stress, and gut-microbiota. In a cross-over RCT (three weeks intervention; three weeks washout), adults (n = 70; 30–50 y) with sleep disturbances (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) ≥ 9) consumed products 1 h before bed-time. Sleep quality (PSQI) was measured weekly, stress at base- and end-line (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and saliva cortisol). Fecal samples were collected in the 1st intervention period only. Compared to placebo (skimmed milk), PSQI was only lower at day 14 in the 2nd intervention period in intention-to-treat (ITT) (p = 0.017; n = 69) and per-protocol (PP) (p = 0.038; n = 64) analyses. Post-hoc analysis (modified-PP: n=47, with baseline PSQI ≥ 9, and endline day 14), however, showed a decrease in PSQI (−1.60 ± 2.53; p = 0.034). Early morning saliva cortisol decreased versus placebo (p = 0.045). Relative abundance of Bifidobacterium increased (p = 0.02). Redundancy analysis showed an inverse relationship between baseline microbiota composition and baseline PSQI (p = 0.046). Thus, although DP did not improve sleep quality in ITT and PP populations, it did in the modPP. DP reduced salivary cortisol and stimulated Bifidobacterium, which possibly is important for sleep improvement. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep; stress; microbiota; galacto-oligosaccharides; GOS; whey protein; tryptophan; skimmed milk powder sleep; stress; microbiota; galacto-oligosaccharides; GOS; whey protein; tryptophan; skimmed milk powder
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schaafsma, A.; Mallee, L.; van den Belt, M.; Floris, E.; Kortman, G.; Veldman, J.; van den Ende, D.; Kardinaal, A. The Effect of A Whey-Protein and Galacto-Oligosaccharides Based Product on Parameters of Sleep Quality, Stress, and Gut Microbiota in Apparently Healthy Adults with Moderate Sleep Disturbances: A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2204. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072204

AMA Style

Schaafsma A, Mallee L, van den Belt M, Floris E, Kortman G, Veldman J, van den Ende D, Kardinaal A. The Effect of A Whey-Protein and Galacto-Oligosaccharides Based Product on Parameters of Sleep Quality, Stress, and Gut Microbiota in Apparently Healthy Adults with Moderate Sleep Disturbances: A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2204. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072204

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schaafsma, Anne, Leonard Mallee, Maartje van den Belt, Esther Floris, Guus Kortman, Jouke Veldman, Daan van den Ende, and Alwine Kardinaal. 2021. "The Effect of A Whey-Protein and Galacto-Oligosaccharides Based Product on Parameters of Sleep Quality, Stress, and Gut Microbiota in Apparently Healthy Adults with Moderate Sleep Disturbances: A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Study" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2204. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072204

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