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Review

Beneficial Effects of Exogenous Ketogenic Supplements on Aging Processes and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Department of Biology, Savaria University Centre, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Károlyi Gáspár tér 4., 9700 Szombathely, Hungary
2
Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Biology, University of Pécs, Ifjúság Str. 6, 7624 Pécs, Hungary
3
Behavioral Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave, PCD 3127, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
4
Ketone Technologies LLC, 2780 E. Fowler Ave. #226, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: M. Hasan Mohajeri
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2197; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072197
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 23 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 26 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Brain Development)
Life expectancy of humans has increased continuously up to the present days, but their health status (healthspan) was not enhanced by similar extent. To decrease enormous medical, economical and psychological burden that arise from this discrepancy, improvement of healthspan is needed that leads to delaying both aging processes and development of age-related diseases, thereby extending lifespan. Thus, development of new therapeutic tools to alleviate aging processes and related diseases and to increase life expectancy is a topic of increasing interest. It is widely accepted that ketosis (increased blood ketone body levels, e.g., β-hydroxybutyrate) can generate neuroprotective effects. Ketosis-evoked neuroprotective effects may lead to improvement in health status and delay both aging and the development of related diseases through improving mitochondrial function, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, histone and non-histone acetylation, β-hydroxybutyrylation of histones, modulation of neurotransmitter systems and RNA functions. Administration of exogenous ketogenic supplements was proven to be an effective method to induce and maintain a healthy state of nutritional ketosis. Consequently, exogenous ketogenic supplements, such as ketone salts and ketone esters, may mitigate aging processes, delay the onset of age-associated diseases and extend lifespan through ketosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the main hallmarks of aging processes and certain signaling pathways in association with (putative) beneficial influences of exogenous ketogenic supplements-evoked ketosis on lifespan, aging processes, the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), as well as impaired learning and memory functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketogenic supplement; ketosis; aging; lifespan; neurodegenerative disease; learning; memory ketogenic supplement; ketosis; aging; lifespan; neurodegenerative disease; learning; memory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kovács, Z.; Brunner, B.; Ari, C. Beneficial Effects of Exogenous Ketogenic Supplements on Aging Processes and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2197. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072197

AMA Style

Kovács Z, Brunner B, Ari C. Beneficial Effects of Exogenous Ketogenic Supplements on Aging Processes and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2197. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072197

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kovács, Zsolt, Brigitta Brunner, and Csilla Ari. 2021. "Beneficial Effects of Exogenous Ketogenic Supplements on Aging Processes and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2197. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072197

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