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Article

Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Modifiable Lifestyle Factors in Pre-Adolescent Children Living in Urban Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, International Medical University, No. 126, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
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Department of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, International Medical University, Jalan Rasah, Seremban 70300, Malaysia
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Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Taylor’s University, No. 1, Jalan Taylor’s, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
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Distinguished Professor Emerita, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Taylor C. Wallace
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072175
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
Studies on vitamin D status and its determinants in growing children in countries with ample sunshine such as Malaysia have been limited. The aim of our study was to determine factors associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations such as lifestyle, dietary intake, anthropometry, and body composition in 243 pre-adolescent Malaysian children from low-income families living in Kuala Lumpur. This cross-sectional study measured bone density and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while serum 25(OH)D was measured using LC–MS/MS. Time spent outdoors, body surface area exposed to sunlight, dietary intake, and physical activity level were assessed using questionnaires. Multiple linear regression and stepwise analysis were performed to identify significant predictors for serum 25(OH)D. About 69.4% had 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L, and 18.9% were vitamin-D-deficient with 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L. Girls had a nine-fold higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than boys. Body surface area exposed to sunlight, Sun Index, and fat mass were significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentrations in this population. Modifiable lifestyle factors such as sun exposure and reducing obesity are important public health guidance to ensure optimal vitamin D status in these children. View Full-Text
Keywords: serum 25(OH)D; pre-adolescent children; vitamin D status; lifestyle factors serum 25(OH)D; pre-adolescent children; vitamin D status; lifestyle factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chee, W.S.S.; Chang, C.Y.; Arasu, K.; Wong, S.Y.; Ong, S.H.; Yang, W.Y.; Chong, M.H.Z.; Mavinkurve, M.; Khoo, E.J.; Chinna, K.; Weaver, C.M. Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Modifiable Lifestyle Factors in Pre-Adolescent Children Living in Urban Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2175. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072175

AMA Style

Chee WSS, Chang CY, Arasu K, Wong SY, Ong SH, Yang WY, Chong MHZ, Mavinkurve M, Khoo EJ, Chinna K, Weaver CM. Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Modifiable Lifestyle Factors in Pre-Adolescent Children Living in Urban Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2175. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072175

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chee, Winnie S.S., Chung Y. Chang, Kanimolli Arasu, Soon Y. Wong, Shu H. Ong, Wai Y. Yang, Megan H.Z. Chong, Meenal Mavinkurve, Erwin J. Khoo, Karuthan Chinna, and Connie M. Weaver 2021. "Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Modifiable Lifestyle Factors in Pre-Adolescent Children Living in Urban Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2175. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072175

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