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Article

Association of Heavy Metals with Overall Mortality in a Taiwanese Population

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
3
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
4
Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
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Health Management and Occupational Safety Health Center, Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
6
Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Přemysl Mladěnka
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062070
Received: 29 May 2021 / Revised: 12 June 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 17 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Previous studies have shown links between heavy metals and many health issues. However, data on the association between heavy metals and mortality in the general population are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between heavy metals and overall mortality in the general population. We enrolled 2497 participants (1001 males and 1496 females) living in southern Taiwan, and measured levels of seven heavy metals: lead (Pb) in blood and cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) in urine. The median follow-up period was 41.8 (4–50) months, during which 40 (1.6%) patients died. Compared to the participants who survived, those who died had higher urine Cd, higher urine Cu and lower urine Mn levels. Multivariate analysis showed that high urine Cd (per 1 μg/L; hazard ratio [HR], 1.352; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.089–1.680; p = 0.006), high urine Cu (per 1 μg/dL; HR, 1.350; 95% CI, 1.151–1.583; p < 0.001), and low urine Mn (per 1 μg/L; HR, 0.717; 95% CI, 0.557–0.923; p = 0.010) were associated with increased overall mortality. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that high levels of urine Cd and Cu and low urine Mn level were associated with increased overall mortality in the general population. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; mortality; Taiwanese Population; cadmium; copper; manganese heavy metals; mortality; Taiwanese Population; cadmium; copper; manganese
MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.-H.; Wang, C.-W.; Wu, D.-W.; Lee, W.-H.; Chen, Y.-C.; Li, C.-H.; Tsai, C.-C.; Lin, W.-Y.; Chen, S.-C.; Hung, C.-H.; Kuo, C.-H.; Su, H.-M. Association of Heavy Metals with Overall Mortality in a Taiwanese Population. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2070. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062070

AMA Style

Liu Y-H, Wang C-W, Wu D-W, Lee W-H, Chen Y-C, Li C-H, Tsai C-C, Lin W-Y, Chen S-C, Hung C-H, Kuo C-H, Su H-M. Association of Heavy Metals with Overall Mortality in a Taiwanese Population. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):2070. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Yi-Hsueh, Chih-Wen Wang, Da-Wei Wu, Wen-Hsien Lee, Ying-Chih Chen, Chiu-Hui Li, Chun-Chi Tsai, Wen-Yi Lin, Szu-Chia Chen, Chih-Hsing Hung, Chao-Hung Kuo, and Ho-Ming Su. 2021. "Association of Heavy Metals with Overall Mortality in a Taiwanese Population" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 2070. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062070

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