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Review

Efficacy of Bilberry and Grape Seed Extract Supplement Interventions to Improve Glucose and Cholesterol Metabolism and Blood Pressure in Different Populations—A Systematic Review of the Literature

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Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
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Formerly Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
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Biomathematics & Statistics Scotland, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
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By-Health Ltd. Co, No.3 Kehui 3rd Street, No.99 Kexue Avenue Central, Luogang District, Guangzhou 510000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Formerly Rowett Institute, now affiliated with Robert Gordon University.
Academic Editor: Herminia González-Navarro
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051692
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 29 April 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
Intervention with fruit extracts may lower glucose and lipid levels, as well as blood pressure. We reviewed the efficacy of bilberry and grape seed extracts to affect these outcomes across populations with varying health status, age and ethnicity, across intervention doses and durations, in 24 intervention studies with bilberry and blackcurrant (n = 4) and grape seed extract (n = 20). Bilberry and blackcurrant extract lowered average levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), at least in Chinese subjects, especially in those who were older, who were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and who were participating in longer-term studies. We also found good evidence that across studies and in subjects with hypercholesterolemia, T2DM or metabolic syndrome, intervention with bilberry and blackcurrant extract, and to some extent grape seed extract, significantly lowered total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels after four weeks. Intervention with grape seed extract may reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects with hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Differential responsiveness in cholesterol and blood pressure outcomes between stratified populations could not be explained by age, dose or study duration. In conclusion, bilberry and blackcurrant extract appears effective in lowering HbA1c and total and LDL cholesterol, whereas grape seed extract may lower total and LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure, in specific population groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: bilberry; grape seed; extracts; glucose; cholesterol; blood pressure; human intervention studies bilberry; grape seed; extracts; glucose; cholesterol; blood pressure; human intervention studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grohmann, T.; Litts, C.; Horgan, G.; Zhang, X.; Hoggard, N.; Russell, W.; de Roos, B. Efficacy of Bilberry and Grape Seed Extract Supplement Interventions to Improve Glucose and Cholesterol Metabolism and Blood Pressure in Different Populations—A Systematic Review of the Literature. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1692. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051692

AMA Style

Grohmann T, Litts C, Horgan G, Zhang X, Hoggard N, Russell W, de Roos B. Efficacy of Bilberry and Grape Seed Extract Supplement Interventions to Improve Glucose and Cholesterol Metabolism and Blood Pressure in Different Populations—A Systematic Review of the Literature. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1692. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051692

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grohmann, Teresa, Caroline Litts, Graham Horgan, Xuguang Zhang, Nigel Hoggard, Wendy Russell, and Baukje de Roos. 2021. "Efficacy of Bilberry and Grape Seed Extract Supplement Interventions to Improve Glucose and Cholesterol Metabolism and Blood Pressure in Different Populations—A Systematic Review of the Literature" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1692. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051692

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