Next Article in Journal
Diversity of Plant Sterols Metabolism: The Impact on Human Health, Sport, and Accumulation of Contaminating Sterols
Next Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Simplified Creatinine Index and Systemic Inflammatory Markers for Nutritional Evaluation of Hemodialysis Patients
Previous Article in Journal
PNPLA3 Genotype, Arachidonic Acid Intake, and Unsaturated Fat Intake Influences Liver Fibrosis in Hispanic Youth with Obesity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Re-Defining the Population-Specific Cut-Off Mark for Vitamin A Deficiency in Pre-School Children of Malawi
Review

Assessment of Body Composition in Athletes: A Narrative Review of Available Methods with Special Reference to Quantitative and Qualitative Bioimpedance Analysis

1
Department for Life Quality Studies, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 47921 Rimini, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
3
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Psychology, “eCampus” University, 22060 Novedrate, Italy
4
Department of Physical Education, São Paulo State University, Presidente Prudente 19060-900, SP, Brazil
5
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helen McCarthy
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051620
Received: 8 April 2021 / Revised: 29 April 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Assessment Methodology: Current Update and Practice)
Body composition is acknowledged as a determinant of athletic health and performance. Its assessment is crucial in evaluating the efficiency of a diet or aspects related to the nutritional status of the athlete. Despite the methods traditionally used to assess body composition, bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA) have recently gained attention in sports, as well as in a research context. Only until recently have specific regression equations and reference tolerance ellipses for athletes become available, while specific recommendations for measurement procedures still remain scarce. Therefore, the present narrative review summarizes the current literature regarding body composition analysis, with a special focus on BIA and BIVA. The use of specific technologies and sampling frequencies is described, and recommendations for the assessment of body composition in athletes are provided. Additionally, the estimation of body composition parameters (i.e., quantitative analysis) and the interpretation of the raw bioelectrical data (i.e., qualitative analysis) are examined, highlighting the innovations now available in athletes. Lastly, it should be noted that, up until 2020, the use of BIA and BIVA in athletes failed to provide accurate results due to unspecific equations and references; however, new perspectives are now unfolding for researchers and practitioners. In light of this, BIA and especially BIVA can be utilized to monitor the nutritional status and the seasonal changes in body composition in athletes, as well as provide accurate within- and between-athlete comparisons. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioelectric impedance vector analysis; BIVA; hydration; phase angle; localized BIA; nutritional status; segmental bioimpedance; tolerance ellipses bioelectric impedance vector analysis; BIVA; hydration; phase angle; localized BIA; nutritional status; segmental bioimpedance; tolerance ellipses
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Campa, F.; Toselli, S.; Mazzilli, M.; Gobbo, L.A.; Coratella, G. Assessment of Body Composition in Athletes: A Narrative Review of Available Methods with Special Reference to Quantitative and Qualitative Bioimpedance Analysis. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1620. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051620

AMA Style

Campa F, Toselli S, Mazzilli M, Gobbo LA, Coratella G. Assessment of Body Composition in Athletes: A Narrative Review of Available Methods with Special Reference to Quantitative and Qualitative Bioimpedance Analysis. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1620. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051620

Chicago/Turabian Style

Campa, Francesco, Stefania Toselli, Massimiliano Mazzilli, Luís A. Gobbo, and Giuseppe Coratella. 2021. "Assessment of Body Composition in Athletes: A Narrative Review of Available Methods with Special Reference to Quantitative and Qualitative Bioimpedance Analysis" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1620. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051620

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop