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Article

Development of a High-Throughput Method to Study the Inhibitory Effect of Phytochemicals on Trimethylamine Formation

1
Plants for Human Health Institute, Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cristina Nocella
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051466
Received: 2 April 2021 / Revised: 20 April 2021 / Accepted: 23 April 2021 / Published: 26 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease)
Choline is metabolized by the gut microbiota into trimethylamine (TMA), the precursor of pro-atherosclerotic molecule trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). A reduction in TMA formation has shown cardioprotective effects, and some phytochemicals may reduce TMA formation. This study aimed to develop an optimized, high-throughput anaerobic fermentation methodology to study the inhibition of choline microbial metabolism into TMA by phenolic compounds with healthy human fecal starter. Optimal fermentation conditions were: 20% fecal slurry (1:10 in PBS), 100 µM choline, and 12 h fermentation. Additionally, 10 mM of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) was defined as a positive TMA production inhibitor, achieving a ~50% reduction in TMA production. Gallic acid and chlorogenic acid reported higher TMA inhibitory potential (maximum of 80–90% TMA production inhibition), with IC50 around 5 mM. Neither DMB nor gallic acid or chlorogenic acid reduced TMA production through cytotoxic effects, indicating mechanisms such as altered TMA-lyase activity or expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerosis; gallic acid; chlorogenic acid; microbiota; trimethylamine atherosclerosis; gallic acid; chlorogenic acid; microbiota; trimethylamine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iglesias-Carres, L.; Essenmacher, L.A.; Racine, K.C.; Neilson, A.P. Development of a High-Throughput Method to Study the Inhibitory Effect of Phytochemicals on Trimethylamine Formation. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1466. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051466

AMA Style

Iglesias-Carres L, Essenmacher LA, Racine KC, Neilson AP. Development of a High-Throughput Method to Study the Inhibitory Effect of Phytochemicals on Trimethylamine Formation. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1466. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051466

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iglesias-Carres, Lisard, Lauren A. Essenmacher, Kathryn C. Racine, and Andrew P. Neilson 2021. "Development of a High-Throughput Method to Study the Inhibitory Effect of Phytochemicals on Trimethylamine Formation" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1466. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051466

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