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Article

Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations: The Mediterranean PHIME Cohort

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Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Institute for Maternal and Child Health–IRCCS ‘Burlo Garofolo’, via dell’Istria 65/1, 34137 Trieste, Italy
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Department of Medical Area–DAME, University of Udine, via Colugna 50, 33100 Udine, Italy
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Scientific Direction, Institute for Maternal and Child Health–IRCCS ‘Burlo Garofolo’, via dell’Istria 65/1, 34137 Trieste, Italy
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Institute of Hygiene and Clinical Epidemiology, Friuli Centrale Healthcare and University Trust, via Colugna 50, 33100 Udine, Italy
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Medical Director’s Office, Azienda Sanitaria Friuli Occidentale, via Piave 54, 33170 Pordenone, Italy
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Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Centre Rijeka, Krešimirova 42, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Green Infrastructure Ltd., Fallerovo Setaliste 22, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Institute of Child Health, “Aghia Sophia” Children’s Hospital, Thivon & Papadiamantopoulou, Goudi, 115 27 Athens, Greece
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Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marloes Dekker Nitert and Debra Jane Palmer
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051434
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 19 April 2021 / Accepted: 21 April 2021 / Published: 24 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
Few studies provide a detailed description of dietary habits during pregnancy, despite the central role of nutrition for the health of the mother and offspring. This paper describes the dietary habits, energy and nutrient intake in pregnant women from four countries belonging to the Mediterranean PHIME cohort (Croatia, Greece, Italy and Slovenia) and evaluates their adherence to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. A total of 1436 women were included in the present analysis. Maternal diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean macro and micronutrient intakes were estimated and compared with the dietary reference values (DRVs). The percentage distribution of the 16 food groups in the total intake of each macronutrient was estimated. All women shared a similar diet during pregnancy; almost all the women in the four countries exceeded the DRV for sugars, and the total fat intake was above the DRV in most women in all the countries, as was the contribution of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to the total energy intake. In all four countries, we observed an increased risk of micronutrient deficiency for iron, folate and vitamin D. Shared guidelines, implemented at both the national and European level, are essential to improve the maternal nutritional status during pregnancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: prospective cohort study; pregnant women; nutrient intake; dietary reference values; food groups; PHIME prospective cohort study; pregnant women; nutrient intake; dietary reference values; food groups; PHIME
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MDPI and ACS Style

Concina, F.; Pani, P.; Carletti, C.; Rosolen, V.; Knowles, A.; Parpinel, M.; Ronfani, L.; Mariuz, M.; Vecchi Brumatti, L.; Valent, F.; Little, D.; Petrović, O.; Prpić, I.; Špirić, Z.; Sofianou-Katsoulis, A.; Mazej, D.; Tratnik, J.S.; Horvat, M.; Barbone, F. Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations: The Mediterranean PHIME Cohort. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1434. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051434

AMA Style

Concina F, Pani P, Carletti C, Rosolen V, Knowles A, Parpinel M, Ronfani L, Mariuz M, Vecchi Brumatti L, Valent F, Little D, Petrović O, Prpić I, Špirić Z, Sofianou-Katsoulis A, Mazej D, Tratnik JS, Horvat M, Barbone F. Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations: The Mediterranean PHIME Cohort. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1434. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051434

Chicago/Turabian Style

Concina, Federica, Paola Pani, Claudia Carletti, Valentina Rosolen, Alessandra Knowles, Maria Parpinel, Luca Ronfani, Marika Mariuz, Liza Vecchi Brumatti, Francesca Valent, D’Anna Little, Oleg Petrović, Igor Prpić, Zdravko Špirić, Aikaterini Sofianou-Katsoulis, Darja Mazej, Janja S. Tratnik, Milena Horvat, and Fabio Barbone. 2021. "Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations: The Mediterranean PHIME Cohort" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1434. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051434

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