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Comment published on 21 October 2021, see Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3694.
Article

Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Mediterranean Diets on Weight Loss, Glucose Metabolism, Insulin Kinetics and β-Cell Function in Morbidly Obese Individuals

1
Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Bariatric Surgery Division, University Hospital of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
4
Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, 56126 Pisa, Italy
5
Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, 56124 Pisa, Italy
6
Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council, 35127 Padua, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the study.
Academic Editor: Mario Barbagallo
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041345
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 6 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 18 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Cardiometabolic Health in Type 2 Diabetes)
Low-calorie Mediterranean-style or low-carbohydrate dietary regimens are widely used nutritional strategies against obesity and associated metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a balanced Mediterranean diet with a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and glucose homeostasis in morbidly obese individuals at high risk to develop diabetes. Insulin secretion, insulin clearance, and different β-cell function components were estimated by modeling plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide profiles during 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed at baseline and after 4 weeks of each dietary intervention. The average weight loss was 5%, being 58% greater in the low-carbohydrate-group than Mediterranean-group. Fasting plasma glucose and glucose tolerance were not affected by the diets. The two dietary regimens proved similarly effective in improving insulin resistance and fasting hyperinsulinemia, while enhancing endogenous insulin clearance and β-cell glucose sensitivity. In summary, we demonstrated that a low-carbohydrate diet is a successful short-term approach for weight loss in morbidly obese patients and a feasible alternative to the Mediterranean diet for its glucometabolic benefits, including improvements in insulin resistance, insulin clearance and β-cell function. Further studies are needed to compare the long-term efficacy and safety of the two diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: beta cell function; glucose tolerance; high protein diet; insulin clearance; insulin secretion; insulin sensitivity; Mediterranean diet; obesity; weight loss intervention beta cell function; glucose tolerance; high protein diet; insulin clearance; insulin secretion; insulin sensitivity; Mediterranean diet; obesity; weight loss intervention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tricò, D.; Moriconi, D.; Berta, R.; Baldi, S.; Quinones-Galvan, A.; Guiducci, L.; Taddei, S.; Mari, A.; Nannipieri, M. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Mediterranean Diets on Weight Loss, Glucose Metabolism, Insulin Kinetics and β-Cell Function in Morbidly Obese Individuals. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1345. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041345

AMA Style

Tricò D, Moriconi D, Berta R, Baldi S, Quinones-Galvan A, Guiducci L, Taddei S, Mari A, Nannipieri M. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Mediterranean Diets on Weight Loss, Glucose Metabolism, Insulin Kinetics and β-Cell Function in Morbidly Obese Individuals. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1345. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041345

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tricò, Domenico, Diego Moriconi, Rossana Berta, Simona Baldi, Alfredo Quinones-Galvan, Letizia Guiducci, Stefano Taddei, Andrea Mari, and Monica Nannipieri. 2021. "Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Mediterranean Diets on Weight Loss, Glucose Metabolism, Insulin Kinetics and β-Cell Function in Morbidly Obese Individuals" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1345. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041345

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