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Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Serum Vitamin D Level among Infants and Toddlers: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis and before-and-after Comparison

1
Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2
Department of Paediatrics, Hong Kong Children’s Hospital, Hong Kong, China
3
Centre for Safe Medication Practice and Research, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
4
Research Department of Practice and Policy, UCL School of Pharmacy, London WC1E 6BT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Carsten Carlberg and Tyler Barker
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041270
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 13 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the implementation of social distancing and home confinement measures may elevate the risk of vitamin D deficiency particularly for infants. This study aimed to quantify changes in vitamin D level among infants and toddlers in Hong Kong after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: We recruited 303 infants and toddlers aged 2–24 months by stratified random sampling from 1 June 2019 to November 30, 2020. Regression models were used to estimate the effect of time on infants’ serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level overall and by age groups before and after the outbreak. Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was performed to examine the sustained effect of COVID-19 on their serum 25(OH)D level. Results: The ITS results showed no immediate reduction in serum 25(OH)D level among infants, but a decreasing trend was observed in the subsequent months post-outbreak at a monthly decline rate of −6.32 nmol/L. When analyzed by age group, the magnitude of post-outbreak reduction in 25(OH)D was stronger among younger infants (aged 2–6 months). Conclusion: Guidelines and recommendations should be given to pregnant women and mothers to ensure sufficient vitamin D level in their infants during the COVID-19 period. View Full-Text
Keywords: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D; infants; COVID-19; interrupted time series serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D; infants; COVID-19; interrupted time series
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wong, R.S.; Tung, K.T.S.; So, H.-K.; Wong, W.H.S.; Wong, S.Y.; Tsang, H.W.; Tung, J.Y.L.; Chua, G.T.; Ho, M.H.K.; Wong, I.C.K.; Ip, P. Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Serum Vitamin D Level among Infants and Toddlers: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis and before-and-after Comparison. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1270. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041270

AMA Style

Wong RS, Tung KTS, So H-K, Wong WHS, Wong SY, Tsang HW, Tung JYL, Chua GT, Ho MHK, Wong ICK, Ip P. Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Serum Vitamin D Level among Infants and Toddlers: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis and before-and-after Comparison. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1270. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041270

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wong, Rosa S., Keith T.S. Tung, Hung-Kwan So, Wilfred H.S. Wong, Siew Y. Wong, Hing W. Tsang, Joanna Y.L. Tung, Gilbert T. Chua, Marco H.K. Ho, Ian C.K. Wong, and Patrick Ip. 2021. "Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Serum Vitamin D Level among Infants and Toddlers: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis and before-and-after Comparison" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1270. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041270

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