The genetic polymorphisms involved in the physiopathology of binge eating disorder (BED) are currently unclear. This systematic review aims to highlight and summarize the research on polymorphisms that is conducted in the BED. We looked for observational studies where there was a genetic comparison between adults with BED, in some cases also with obesity or overweight, and healthy controls or obesity/overweight without BED. Our protocol was written using PRISMA. It is registered at PROSPERO (identification: CRD42020198645). To identify potentially relevant documents, the following bibliographic databases were searched without a time limit, but until September 2020: PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science. In total, 21 articles were included in the qualitative analysis of the systematic review, as they met the eligibility criteria. Within the selected studies, 41 polymorphisms of 17 genes were assessed. Overall, this systematic review provides a list of potentially useful genetic polymorphisms involved in BED: 5-HTTLPR (5-HTT), Taq1A (ANKK1/DRD2), A118G (OPRM1), C957T (DRD2), rs2283265 (DRD2), Val158Met (COMT), rs6198 (GR), Val103Ile (MC4R), Ile251Leu (MC4R), rs6265 (BNDF), and Leu72Met (GHRL). It is important to emphasize that Taq1A is the polymorphism that showed, in two different research groups, the most significant association with BED. The remaining polymorphisms need further evidence to be confirmed.
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