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Article

Increased 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D Concentrations after Energy Restriction Are Associated with Changes in Skeletal Muscle Phenotype

1
Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
2
Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
3
Department of Comparative Anatomy, Pathological Anatomy, and Toxicology, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Tyler Barker
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020607
Received: 12 January 2021 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 12 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
The influence of energy restriction (ER) on muscle is controversial, and the mechanisms are not well understood. To study the effect of ER on skeletal muscle phenotype and the influence of vitamin D, rats (n = 34) were fed a control diet or an ER diet. Muscle mass, muscle somatic index (MSI), fiber-type composition, fiber size, and metabolic activity were studied in tibialis cranialis (TC) and soleus (SOL) muscles. Plasma vitamin D metabolites and renal expression of enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism were measured. In the ER group, muscle weight was unchanged in TC and decreased by 12% in SOL, but MSI increased in both muscles (p < 0.0001) by 55% and 36%, respectively. Histomorphometric studies showed 14% increase in the percentage of type IIA fibers and 13% reduction in type IIX fibers in TC of ER rats. Decreased size of type I fibers and reduced oxidative activity was identified in SOL of ER rats. An increase in plasma 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D (169.7 ± 6.8 vs. 85.4 ± 11.5 pg/mL, p < 0.0001) with kidney up-regulation of CYP27b1 and down-regulation of CYP24a1 was observed in ER rats. Plasma vitamin D correlated with MSI in both muscles (p < 0.001), with the percentages of type IIA and type IIX fibers in TC and with the oxidative profile in SOL. In conclusion, ER preserves skeletal muscle mass, improves contractile phenotype in phasic muscles (TC), and reduces energy expenditure in antigravity muscles (SOL). These beneficial effects are closely related to the increases in vitamin D secondary to ER. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy restriction; muscle; vitamin D; rat energy restriction; muscle; vitamin D; rat
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vidal, A.; Rios, R.; Pineda, C.; Lopez, I.; Raya, A.I.; Aguilera-Tejero, E.; Rivero, J.-L.L. Increased 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D Concentrations after Energy Restriction Are Associated with Changes in Skeletal Muscle Phenotype. Nutrients 2021, 13, 607. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020607

AMA Style

Vidal A, Rios R, Pineda C, Lopez I, Raya AI, Aguilera-Tejero E, Rivero J-LL. Increased 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D Concentrations after Energy Restriction Are Associated with Changes in Skeletal Muscle Phenotype. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):607. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020607

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vidal, Angela, Rafael Rios, Carmen Pineda, Ignacio Lopez, Ana I. Raya, Escolastico Aguilera-Tejero, and Jose-Luis L. Rivero 2021. "Increased 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D Concentrations after Energy Restriction Are Associated with Changes in Skeletal Muscle Phenotype" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 607. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020607

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