Malnutrition is a core symptom of the frailty cycle in older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dysphagia influences nutrition or frailty status in community-dwelling older adults. The study participants were 320 Japanese community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years. All participants completed a questionnaire survey that included items on age, sex, family structure, self-rated health, nutritional and frailty status, and swallowing function. Nutritional status was categorized as malnourished, at risk of malnutrition, and well-nourished based on the Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form. The participants were then classified into a malnutrition (malnourished/at risk) or a well-nourished group (well-nourished). Frailty was assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. The participants were then divided into a frailty (frail/pre-frail) or a non-frailty group (robust). Dysphagia was screened using the 10-item Eating Assessment Tool. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether dysphagia was associated with nutritional or frailty status. The results revealed that dysphagia influenced both nutrition (odds ratio [OR]: 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–8.2) and frailty status (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.0–5.2); therefore, the swallowing function would be an important factor for community-dwelling older adults on frailty prevention programs.
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