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Article

Macro- and Micronutrient Intake in Children with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

1
Behavioral Medicine Research Unit, Integrated Research and Treatment Center Adiposity Diseases, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Leipzig University Medical Center, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
2
LIFE Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
3
Center for Pediatric Research, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Leipzig University Medical Center, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
4
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Leipzig University Medical Center, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Riccardo Dalle Grave
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020400
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 23 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating and Feeding Disorders with Restrictive Food Intake)
Although case studies in avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) indicate severe nutritional deficiencies in those with a highly limited amount or variety of food intake, systematic analyses on food intake in treatment-seeking children and adolescents with ARFID are lacking. Within this study, n = 20 patients with an interview-based diagnosis of ARFID (0–17 years) were included and compared to n = 20 healthy controls individually matched for age and sex. Children or parents completed three-day food diaries and a food list. Macronutrient, vitamin, and mineral supply was determined based on the percentage of their recommended intake. The results showed a significantly lower total energy and protein intake in ARFID versus controls, with trends for lower fat and carbohydrate intake. ARFID subtypes of limited amount versus variety of food intake significantly differed in macro-, but not micronutrient intake. Those with ARFID met only 20–30% of the recommended intake for most vitamins and minerals, with significantly lower intake relative to controls for vitamin B1, B2, C, K, zinc, iron, and potassium. Variety of food intake was significantly reduced in ARFID versus controls in all food groups except carbohydrates. This study demonstrated that ARFID goes along with reduced everyday life macro- and micronutrient intake, which may increase the risk for developmental and health problems. Future studies additionally assessing serum nutrient levels in a larger sample may further explore differences in food intake across diverse ARFID presentations. View Full-Text
Keywords: ARFID; eating disorder; energy intake; food diary; children; adolescents; macronutrients; micronutrients; vitamin ARFID; eating disorder; energy intake; food diary; children; adolescents; macronutrients; micronutrients; vitamin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schmidt, R.; Hiemisch, A.; Kiess, W.; von Klitzing, K.; Schlensog-Schuster, F.; Hilbert, A. Macro- and Micronutrient Intake in Children with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder. Nutrients 2021, 13, 400. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020400

AMA Style

Schmidt R, Hiemisch A, Kiess W, von Klitzing K, Schlensog-Schuster F, Hilbert A. Macro- and Micronutrient Intake in Children with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):400. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020400

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schmidt, Ricarda, Andreas Hiemisch, Wieland Kiess, Kai von Klitzing, Franziska Schlensog-Schuster, and Anja Hilbert. 2021. "Macro- and Micronutrient Intake in Children with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 400. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020400

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