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Open AccessArticle

Protective Effects of Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vitro

1
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, 35121 Padua, Italy
2
Laboratory of Advanced Translational Research, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, 35128 Padua, Italy
3
AAT-Advanced Analytical Technologies S.r.l., Fiorenzuola d’Arda, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
4
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
5
IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, University of Milan, 20136 Milan, Italy
6
Unit of Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed to the work.
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020328
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 20 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 23 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus that currently lacks curative treatments. Lactoferrin (LF) is a naturally occurring non-toxic glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we assessed the potential of LF in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral immune response gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in uninfected Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells treated with LF. An infection assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed in Caco-2 cells treated or not with LF. SARS-CoV-2 titer was determined by qRT-PCR, plaque assay and immunostaining. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by qRT-PCR. LF significantly induced the expression of IFNA1, IFNB1, TLR3, TLR7, IRF3, IRF7 and MAVS genes. Furthermore, LF partially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Our in vitro data support LF as an immune modulator of the antiviral immune response with moderate effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: lactoferrin; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral immunity; COVID-19 lactoferrin; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral immunity; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salaris, C.; Scarpa, M.; Elli, M.; Bertolini, A.; Guglielmetti, S.; Pregliasco, F.; Blandizzi, C.; Brun, P.; Castagliuolo, I. Protective Effects of Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vitro. Nutrients 2021, 13, 328. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020328

AMA Style

Salaris C, Scarpa M, Elli M, Bertolini A, Guglielmetti S, Pregliasco F, Blandizzi C, Brun P, Castagliuolo I. Protective Effects of Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vitro. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):328. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020328

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salaris, Claudio; Scarpa, Melania; Elli, Marina; Bertolini, Alice; Guglielmetti, Simone; Pregliasco, Fabrizio; Blandizzi, Corrado; Brun, Paola; Castagliuolo, Ignazio. 2021. "Protective Effects of Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vitro" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 328. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020328

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