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Review

Magnesium in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes

1
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences “L. Sacco”, Università di Milano, 20157 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Università di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Pediatrics, Ospedale dei Bambini, 2154 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Mario Barbagallo
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020320
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
Magnesium (Mg2+) deficiency is probably the most underestimated electrolyte imbalance in Western countries. It is frequent in obese patients, subjects with type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, both in adulthood and in childhood. This narrative review aims to offer insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms linking Mg2+ deficiency with obesity and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Literature highlights critical issues about the treatment of Mg2+ deficiency, such as the lack of a clear definition of Mg2+ nutritional status, the use of different Mg2+ salts and dosage and the different duration of the Mg2+ supplementation. Despite the lack of agreement, an appropriate dietary pattern, including the right intake of Mg2+, improves metabolic syndrome by reducing blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. This occurs through the modulation of gene expression and proteomic profile as well as through a positive influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the metabolism of vitamins B1 and D. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; magnesium deficiency; magnesium supplementation; obesity; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes; gut microbiota; vitamin D magnesium; magnesium deficiency; magnesium supplementation; obesity; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes; gut microbiota; vitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Piuri, G.; Zocchi, M.; Della Porta, M.; Ficara, V.; Manoni, M.; Zuccotti, G.V.; Pinotti, L.; Maier, J.A.; Cazzola, R. Magnesium in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2021, 13, 320. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020320

AMA Style

Piuri G, Zocchi M, Della Porta M, Ficara V, Manoni M, Zuccotti GV, Pinotti L, Maier JA, Cazzola R. Magnesium in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):320. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020320

Chicago/Turabian Style

Piuri, Gabriele, Monica Zocchi, Matteo Della Porta, Valentina Ficara, Michele Manoni, Gian V. Zuccotti, Luciano Pinotti, Jeanette A. Maier, and Roberta Cazzola. 2021. "Magnesium in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 320. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020320

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