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Article

Maternal Factors Associated with Levels of Fatty Acids, Specifically n-3 PUFA during Pregnancy: ECLIPSES Study

1
Nutrition and Public Health Unit, Research Group on Nutrition and Mental Health (NUTRISAM), Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain
2
Pere Virgili Institute for Health Research (IISPV), Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43003 Tarragona, Spain
3
Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Health (ICS)-Camp de Tarragona-Terres de l’Ebre, Joan XXIII University Hospital in Tarragona, 43005 Tarragona, Spain
4
Tarragona-Reus Research Support Unit, Jordi Gol Primary Care Research Institute, 43003 Tarragona, Spain
5
CIBERobn (Center for Biomedical Research in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
The ECLIPSES Study Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020317
Received: 15 December 2020 / Revised: 14 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Maternal Nutrition on Cognitive Function of Children)
An optimal fatty acid (FA) profile during pregnancy, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), is essential for the health of the mother and child. Our aim was to identify the socioeconomic and maternal lifestyle factors associated with serum FA concentration in pregnant women. A longitudinal study was conducted on 479 pregnant women, who were assessed during the first (T1) and third (T3) trimesters of pregnancy. Data on maternal characteristics, food consumption, and lifestyle were collected. Serum FA concentrations were analysed by a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry combination. The multiple linear regression showed that high educational level and older age were significantly associated with higher EPA and DHA concentrations and lower values of n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid (AA)/EPA in T1 and/or T3. Regarding diet—fish and seafood consumption increased EPA concentration and reduced n-6/n-3 and AA/EPA values in both trimesters, whereas its consumption increased DHA concentration only in T1. Smoking was associated with lower DHA concentration in T1 and higher values of n-6/n-3 ratio in both trimester. Overweight and obesity were associated with higher values of n-6/n-3 ratio and AA/EPA ratio in T1. A statistically non-significant association was observed with saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In conclusion, high educational levels, older age, fish, seafood consumption, and/or non-smoking, are factors that influence better omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) profile in both trimesters of pregnancy. Further research is needed to go in-depth into these findings and their health consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal fatty acid status; polyunsaturated fatty acids; omega-3; pregnancy; lifestyle maternal fatty acid status; polyunsaturated fatty acids; omega-3; pregnancy; lifestyle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aparicio, E.; Martín-Grau, C.; Bedmar, C.; Serrat Orus, N.; Basora, J.; Arija, V.; The ECLIPSES Study Group. Maternal Factors Associated with Levels of Fatty Acids, Specifically n-3 PUFA during Pregnancy: ECLIPSES Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 317. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020317

AMA Style

Aparicio E, Martín-Grau C, Bedmar C, Serrat Orus N, Basora J, Arija V, The ECLIPSES Study Group. Maternal Factors Associated with Levels of Fatty Acids, Specifically n-3 PUFA during Pregnancy: ECLIPSES Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):317. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020317

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aparicio, Estefania, Carla Martín-Grau, Cristina Bedmar, Núria Serrat Orus, Josep Basora, Victoria Arija, and The ECLIPSES Study Group. 2021. "Maternal Factors Associated with Levels of Fatty Acids, Specifically n-3 PUFA during Pregnancy: ECLIPSES Study" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 317. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020317

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