Nutrition knowledge refers to understanding concepts and processes related to nutrition and health, proven to be an essential determinant of healthy eating. However, partially due to the lack of nutrition knowledge and unhealthy eating patterns, more and more Chinese people face overweight, obesity, and a high risk of suffering from various chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a general nutritional knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) in a Chinese context to diagnose and improve nutrition knowledge education for Chinese people. The newly adapted questionnaire was based on the Turkey version of GNKQ, and absorbed dietary recommendations in a Chinese context. It was first validated by four nutrition experts, then tested by eleven volunteers (one public nutritionist, one preventive medicine graduate student, and nine psychology graduate students). Finally, the questionnaire was tested by 278 participants, including 175 adults, to determine internal consistency, content validity, and convergent validity. Moreover, the construct validity was evaluated by comparing the differences between 50 students in nutrition-related majors and 53 students in nutrition-unrelated majors. The final Chinese version of GNKQ kept 32 questions with 68 items after deleting some questions based on item difficulty and discrimination. The data showed that the overall internal consistency coefficient was 0.885, and the test-retest reliability was 0.769, p
< 0.001. Students majoring in nutrition had larger scores than in nutrition-unrelated majors. The convergent validity for each demographic variable was consistent with previous studies, such as larger nutrition knowledge scores for females and those with a higher education. Therefore, the revised Chinese version of GNKQ showed good reliability and validity, indicating that it could be an effective tool to assess the nutrition knowledge of Chinese adults.
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