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Article

High Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Is Not Associated with an Improved Sodium and Potassium Intake

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Facoltà di Alimentazione e Nutrizione Umana, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
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Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação, Universidade do Porto, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal
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CITAB—Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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CIAFEL—Centro de Investigação em Atividade Física, Saúde e Lazer, Universidade do Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
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Laboratório para a Investigação Integrativa e Translacional em Saúde Populacional (ITR), 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
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LAQV-REQUIMTE—Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 5000-801 Porto, Portugal
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UP EPIUnit—Institute of Public Health, Universidade do Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114151
Received: 28 September 2021 / Revised: 14 November 2021 / Accepted: 16 November 2021 / Published: 19 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
Prevention and control of hypertension and cerebro-cardiovascular diseases are associated with adequate sodium and potassium intake and adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The aim of this study was to assess the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) and the excretion of sodium and potassium as surrogate measures of intake. This is a cross-sectional analysis as part of a larger study (the iMC SALT randomized controlled trial) among workers of a public university. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the adherence to MD, using the alternative Mediterranean diet (aMED) score; sodium and potassium excretions were estimated by 24-h urine collections. Sociodemographic and other lifestyle characteristics were also obtained. The associations between the adherence to MD and Na and K excretion were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for confounding variables. From the 109 selected participants, seven were excluded considering urine screening and completeness criteria, leaving a final sample of 102 subjects (48% male, average age 47 years). Mean sodium and potassium excretion were 3216 mg/day and 2646 mg/day, respectively. Sodium and potassium excretion were significantly higher in men, but no differences were found according to different levels of MD adherence. In logistic regression analysis, sodium, potassium, and sodium-to-potassium ratio urinary excretion tertiles were not associated with MD adherence (low/moderate versus high), even after adjustment for confounding variables. A high adherence to MD was thus not associated with a different level of sodium and potassium intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt; sodium; potassium; Mediterranean diet; 24-h urinary excretion salt; sodium; potassium; Mediterranean diet; 24-h urinary excretion
MDPI and ACS Style

Viroli, G.; Gonçalves, C.; Pinho, O.; Silva-Santos, T.; Padrão, P.; Moreira, P. High Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Is Not Associated with an Improved Sodium and Potassium Intake. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4151. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114151

AMA Style

Viroli G, Gonçalves C, Pinho O, Silva-Santos T, Padrão P, Moreira P. High Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Is Not Associated with an Improved Sodium and Potassium Intake. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):4151. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114151

Chicago/Turabian Style

Viroli, Giulia, Carla Gonçalves, Olívia Pinho, Tânia Silva-Santos, Patrícia Padrão, and Pedro Moreira. 2021. "High Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Is Not Associated with an Improved Sodium and Potassium Intake" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 4151. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114151

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