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Vitamin D Status of the British African-Caribbean Residents: Analysis of the UK Biobank Cohort

1
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, School of Biosciences and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
2
Faculty of Science Medicine and Health, School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
3
Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
4
Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Hahn
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114104
Received: 14 October 2021 / Revised: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 13 November 2021 / Published: 16 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
The vitamin D status of the United Kingdom (UK) African-Caribbean (AC) population remains under-researched, despite an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency due to darker skin phenotypes and living at a high latitude. This cross-sectional study explored the vitamin D status and intake of AC individuals (n = 4046 with a valid serum 25(OH)D measurement) from the UK Biobank Cohort, aged ≥40 years at baseline (2006–2010). Over one third of the population were deficient (<25 nmol/L), 41.1% were insufficient (25–50 nmol/L) and 15.9% were sufficient (>50 nmol/L). Median (IQR) 25(OH)D was 30.0 (20.9) nmol/L. Logistic regression showed that brown/black skin phenotype, winter blood draw, not consuming oily fish and not using vitamin D supplements predicted increased odds of vitamin D deficiency, whilst older age and a summer or autumn blood draw were significantly associated with reduced odds of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were prevalent in this AC population and is of considerable concern given the individual and societal implications of increased morbidity. Public health messaging for this group should focus on year-round vitamin D supplementation and increasing intakes of culturally appropriate vitamin D-rich foods. These data also support the urgent requirement for a revised vitamin D RNI for ethnic groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; 25(OH)D; African-Caribbean; Afro-Caribbean; UK Biobank; diet; supplement; skin type vitamin D; 25(OH)D; African-Caribbean; Afro-Caribbean; UK Biobank; diet; supplement; skin type
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vearing, R.M.; Hart, K.H.; Charlton, K.; Probst, Y.; Blackbourn, D.J.; Ahmadi, K.R.; Lanham-New, S.A.; Darling, A.L. Vitamin D Status of the British African-Caribbean Residents: Analysis of the UK Biobank Cohort. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4104. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114104

AMA Style

Vearing RM, Hart KH, Charlton K, Probst Y, Blackbourn DJ, Ahmadi KR, Lanham-New SA, Darling AL. Vitamin D Status of the British African-Caribbean Residents: Analysis of the UK Biobank Cohort. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):4104. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114104

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vearing, Rebecca M., Kathryn H. Hart, Karen Charlton, Yasmine Probst, David J. Blackbourn, Kourosh R. Ahmadi, Susan A. Lanham-New, and Andrea L. Darling. 2021. "Vitamin D Status of the British African-Caribbean Residents: Analysis of the UK Biobank Cohort" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 4104. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114104

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