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Article

Astaxanthin Inhibits Diabetes-Triggered Periodontal Destruction, Ameliorates Oxidative Complications in STZ-Injected Mice, and Recovers Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant System

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Cluster for Craniofacial Development and Regeneration Research, School of Dentistry, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
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Institute of Oral Biosciences, School of Dentistry, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
3
Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Department of Bioactive Material Sciences, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
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Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54907, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Fabbri
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103575
Received: 10 September 2021 / Revised: 29 September 2021 / Accepted: 7 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
Numerous studies highlight that astaxanthin (ASTX) ameliorates hyperglycemic condition and hyperglycemia-associated chronic complications. While periodontitis and periodontic tissue degradation are also triggered under chronic hyperglycemia, the roles of ASTX on diabetes-associated periodontal destruction and the related mechanisms therein are not yet fully understood. Here, we explored the impacts of supplemental ASTX on periodontal destruction and systemic complications in type I diabetic mice. To induce diabetes, C57BL/6 mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 150 mg/kg), and the hyperglycemic mice were orally administered with ASTX (12.5 mg/kg) (STZ+ASTX group) or vehicle only (STZ group) daily for 60 days. Supplemental ASTX did not improve hyperglycemic condition, but ameliorated excessive water and feed consumptions and lethality in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Compared with the non-diabetic and STZ+ASTX groups, the STZ group exhibited severe periodontal destruction. Oral gavage with ASTX inhibited osteoclastic formation and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand, 8-OHdG, γ-H2AX, cyclooxygenase 2, and interleukin-1β in the periodontium of STZ-injected mice. Supplemental ASTX not only increased the levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and osteogenic transcription factors in the periodontium, but also recovered circulating lymphocytes and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity in the blood of STZ-injected mice. Furthermore, the addition of ASTX blocked advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress and growth inhibition in human-derived periodontal ligament cells by upregulating the Nrf2 pathway. Together, our results suggest that ASTX does not directly improve hyperglycemia, but ameliorates hyperglycemia-triggered periodontal destruction and oxidative systemic complications in type I diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; diabetes; periodontal destruction; oxidative damage; hyperglycemic complication; Nrf2 pathway astaxanthin; diabetes; periodontal destruction; oxidative damage; hyperglycemic complication; Nrf2 pathway
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bhattarai, G.; So, H.-S.; Kieu, T.T.T.; Kook, S.-H.; Lee, J.-C.; Jeon, Y.-M. Astaxanthin Inhibits Diabetes-Triggered Periodontal Destruction, Ameliorates Oxidative Complications in STZ-Injected Mice, and Recovers Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant System. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3575. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103575

AMA Style

Bhattarai G, So H-S, Kieu TTT, Kook S-H, Lee J-C, Jeon Y-M. Astaxanthin Inhibits Diabetes-Triggered Periodontal Destruction, Ameliorates Oxidative Complications in STZ-Injected Mice, and Recovers Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant System. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3575. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103575

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bhattarai, Govinda, Han-Sol So, Thi T.T. Kieu, Sung-Ho Kook, Jeong-Chae Lee, and Young-Mi Jeon. 2021. "Astaxanthin Inhibits Diabetes-Triggered Periodontal Destruction, Ameliorates Oxidative Complications in STZ-Injected Mice, and Recovers Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant System" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3575. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103575

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