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Review

Which Milk during the Second Year of Life: A Personalized Choice for a Healthy Future?

1
Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, 20146 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Pediatrics, Vittore Buzzi Children’s Hospital, 20154 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Animal Sciences for Health, Animal Production and Food Safety, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
4
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences “L. Sacco”, University of Milan, 20157 Milan, Italy
5
Pediatric Clinical Research Center Fondazione Romeo ed Enrica Invernizzi, University of Milan, 20157 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Andrea Vania and Margherita Caroli
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103412
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 24 September 2021 / Published: 27 September 2021
Nutrition in early life is a crucial element to provide all essential substrates for growth. Although this statement may appear obvious, several studies have shown how the intake of micro and macronutrients in toddlers differs a lot from the recommendations of scientific societies. Protein intake often exceeds the recommended amount, while the intake of iron and zinc is frequently insufficient, as well as Vitamin D. Nutritional errors in the first years of life can negatively impact the health of the child in the long term. To date, no clear evidence on which milk is suggested during the second year of life is yet to be established. In this study, we compare the nutrient profiles of cow’s milk and specific formulas as well as nutritional risks in toddlers linked to growth and childhood obesity development. The purpose of this review is to resume the latest clinical studies on toddlers fed with cow’s milk or young children formula (YCF), and the potential risks or benefits in the short and long term. View Full-Text
Keywords: growing-up milk; milk formula; toddler; nutrients intakes; nutritional risks; iron deficiency; anemia; vitamin d deficiency; protein intake; second year of life growing-up milk; milk formula; toddler; nutrients intakes; nutritional risks; iron deficiency; anemia; vitamin d deficiency; protein intake; second year of life
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MDPI and ACS Style

Verduci, E.; Di Profio, E.; Corsello, A.; Scatigno, L.; Fiore, G.; Bosetti, A.; Zuccotti, G.V. Which Milk during the Second Year of Life: A Personalized Choice for a Healthy Future? Nutrients 2021, 13, 3412. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103412

AMA Style

Verduci E, Di Profio E, Corsello A, Scatigno L, Fiore G, Bosetti A, Zuccotti GV. Which Milk during the Second Year of Life: A Personalized Choice for a Healthy Future? Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3412. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103412

Chicago/Turabian Style

Verduci, Elvira, Elisabetta Di Profio, Antonio Corsello, Lorenzo Scatigno, Giulia Fiore, Alessandra Bosetti, and Gian V. Zuccotti. 2021. "Which Milk during the Second Year of Life: A Personalized Choice for a Healthy Future?" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3412. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103412

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