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Article

Skipping Breakfast for 6 Days Delayed the Circadian Rhythm of the Body Temperature without Altering Clock Gene Expression in Human Leukocytes

1
Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521, Japan
2
Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan
3
Department of Somnology, Tokyo Medical University, 5-10-10 Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-0053, Japan
4
International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine (WPI-IIIS), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550, Japan
5
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0295, Japan
6
Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092797
Received: 5 August 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 12 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
Breakfast is often described as “the most important meal of the day” and human studies have revealed that post-prandial responses are dependent on meal timing, but little is known of the effects of meal timing per se on human circadian rhythms. We evaluated the effects of skipping breakfast for 6 days on core body temperature, dim light melatonin onset, heart rate variability, and clock gene expression in 10 healthy young men, with a repeated-measures design. Subjects were provided an isocaloric diet three times daily (3M) or two times daily (2M, i.e., breakfast skipping condition) over 6 days. Compared with the 3M condition, the diurnal rhythm of the core body temperature in the 2M condition was delayed by 42.0 ± 16.2 min (p = 0.038). On the other hand, dim light melatonin onset, heart rate variability, and clock gene expression were not affected in the 2M condition. Skipping breakfast for 6 days caused a phase delay in the core body temperature in healthy young men, even though the sleep–wake cycle remained unchanged. Chronic effects of skipping breakfast on circadian rhythms remain to be studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: skipping breakfast; core body temperature; dim light melatonin onset (DLMO); heart rate variability; clock gene skipping breakfast; core body temperature; dim light melatonin onset (DLMO); heart rate variability; clock gene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ogata, H.; Horie, M.; Kayaba, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Ando, A.; Park, I.; Zhang, S.; Yajima, K.; Shoda, J.-i.; Omi, N.; Kaneko, M.; Kiyono, K.; Satoh, M.; Tokuyama, K. Skipping Breakfast for 6 Days Delayed the Circadian Rhythm of the Body Temperature without Altering Clock Gene Expression in Human Leukocytes. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2797. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092797

AMA Style

Ogata H, Horie M, Kayaba M, Tanaka Y, Ando A, Park I, Zhang S, Yajima K, Shoda J-i, Omi N, Kaneko M, Kiyono K, Satoh M, Tokuyama K. Skipping Breakfast for 6 Days Delayed the Circadian Rhythm of the Body Temperature without Altering Clock Gene Expression in Human Leukocytes. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2797. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092797

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ogata, Hitomi, Masaki Horie, Momoko Kayaba, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Akira Ando, Insung Park, Simeng Zhang, Katsuhiko Yajima, Jun-ichi Shoda, Naomi Omi, Miki Kaneko, Ken Kiyono, Makoto Satoh, and Kumpei Tokuyama. 2020. "Skipping Breakfast for 6 Days Delayed the Circadian Rhythm of the Body Temperature without Altering Clock Gene Expression in Human Leukocytes" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2797. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092797

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