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Open AccessArticle

Malnutrition, Hypertension Risk, and Correlates: An Analysis of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey Data for 15–19 Years Adolescent Boys and Girls

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Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University for Development Studies, P.O. Box TL 1882, Tamale, Ghana
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Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, P.O. Box TL 1883, Tamale, Ghana
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Partnership for Child Development (PCD), Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
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International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 1201 Eye Street NW, Washington DC 20005-3915, USA
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Micronutrient Forum, 10th Floor, 1201 Eye St NW, Washington DC 20005, USA
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Department of Social Sciences, Sociology of Consumption and Households, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Centre for Health Economics and Policy Innovation, Department of Management, Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, Exhibition Rd, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
Current address: Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen, 9712 CP Groningen, The Netherlands.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2737; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092737
Received: 18 August 2020 / Revised: 1 September 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
The sex differences in malnutrition and hypertension during adolescence is largely inconclusive. There is also a paucity of data on the sex-specific correlates of malnutrition and hypertension for adolescents. Hence, this study aimed to assess the association between malnutrition, pre-hypertension/hypertension (PHH) and sex among adolescents. The study also aimed to determine and contrast the factors associated with these risks in Ghana. We analysed data of non-pregnant adolescent girls (n = 857) and adolescent boys (n = 870) aged 15–19 years from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). We modelled the prevalence risk ratio (PRR) of malnutrition and PHH using Cox proportional hazard models. Compared to adolescent girls, boys were more than twice likely to be stunted (PRR = 2.58, 95% C.I (1.77, 3.76)) and underweight (PRR = 2.67, 95% C.I (1.41, 5.09)) but less likely to be overweight/obese (PRR = 0.85, 95% C.I (0.08, 0.29)). Boys were also about twice likely to have PHH (PRR = 1.96, 95% C.I (1.47, 2.59)) compared to their female peers. Girls were more at risk of the detrimental effects of poor education on stunting and PHH. Empowerment index while protective of stunting for girls (PRR = 0.82, 95% C.I (0.67, 0.99)) also increased their risk of overweight/obesity (PRR = 1.31, 95% C.I (1.02, 1.68)). A higher household wealth index (HWI) increased the risk of overweight/obesity for adolescent girls but was protective of stunting and PHH for adolescent boys. Improvement in household water, hygiene, and sanitation (WASH) reduced the risk of stunting by 15% for adolescent boys. Overall, our findings suggest a double-burden of malnutrition with an up-coming non-communicable disease burden for adolescents in Ghana. Our findings may also be highlighting the need to target adolescent boys alongside girls in nutrition and health intervention programmes. View Full-Text
Keywords: stunting; underweight; overweight; pre-hypertension/hypertension; adolescents; Ghana stunting; underweight; overweight; pre-hypertension/hypertension; adolescents; Ghana
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azupogo, F.; Abizari, A.-R.; Aurino, E.; Gelli, A.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Bras, H.; Feskens, E.J.M; Brouwer, I.D. Malnutrition, Hypertension Risk, and Correlates: An Analysis of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey Data for 15–19 Years Adolescent Boys and Girls. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2737. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092737

AMA Style

Azupogo F, Abizari A-R, Aurino E, Gelli A, Osendarp SJM, Bras H, Feskens EJM, Brouwer ID. Malnutrition, Hypertension Risk, and Correlates: An Analysis of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey Data for 15–19 Years Adolescent Boys and Girls. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2737. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092737

Chicago/Turabian Style

Azupogo, Fusta; Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Aurino, Elisabetta; Gelli, Aulo; Osendarp, Saskia J.M.; Bras, Hilde; Feskens, Edith J.M; Brouwer, Inge D. 2020. "Malnutrition, Hypertension Risk, and Correlates: An Analysis of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey Data for 15–19 Years Adolescent Boys and Girls" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2737. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092737

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