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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Short-Term Hyperenergetic, High-Fat Feeding on Appetite, Appetite-Related Hormones, and Food Reward in Healthy Men

1
National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE1 3TU, UK
2
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust and University of Leicester, Leicester LE5 4PW, UK
3
School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 8NS, UK
4
Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 2DS, UK
5
School of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
6
Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester LE5 4PW, UK
7
Medical School, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092635
Received: 9 August 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2020 / Accepted: 28 August 2020 / Published: 29 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Short-term overfeeding may provoke compensatory appetite responses to correct the energy surplus. However, the initial time-course of appetite, appetite-related hormone, and reward-related responses to hyperenergetic, high-fat diets (HE-HFD) are poorly characterised. Twelve young healthy men consumed a HE-HFD (+50% energy, 65% fat) or control diet (36% fat) for seven days in a randomised crossover design. Mean appetite perceptions were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after each diet. Fasted appetite perceptions, appetite-related hormones, and reward parameters were measured pre-diet and after 1-, 3- and 7-days of each diet. The HE-HFD induced a pre-to-post diet suppression in mean appetite during the OGTT (all ratings p ≤ 0.058, effect size (d) ≥ 0.31), and reduced the preference for high-fat vs. low-fat foods (main effect diet p = 0.036, d = 0.32). Fasted leptin was higher in the HE-HFD than control diet (main effect diet p < 0.001, d = 0.30), whilst a diet-by-time interaction (p = 0.036) revealed fasted acylated ghrelin was reduced after 1-, 3- and 7-days of the HE-HFD (all p ≤ 0.040, d ≥ 0.50 vs. pre-diet). Appetite perceptions and total peptide YY in the fasted state exhibited similar temporal patterns between the diets (diet-by-time interaction p ≥ 0.077). Seven days of high-fat overfeeding provokes modest compensatory changes in subjective, hormonal, and reward-related appetite parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: appetite; food-reward; overfeeding; high-fat diet; energy balance; compensation appetite; food-reward; overfeeding; high-fat diet; energy balance; compensation
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Thackray, A.E.; Willis, S.A.; Clayton, D.J.; Broom, D.R.; Finlayson, G.; Goltz, F.R.; Sargeant, J.A.; Woods, R.M.; Stensel, D.J.; King, J.A. Influence of Short-Term Hyperenergetic, High-Fat Feeding on Appetite, Appetite-Related Hormones, and Food Reward in Healthy Men. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2635.

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