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The Potential Effects of Probiotics and ω-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation

1
Nutrition-Gut-Brain Interactions Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden
2
Division of Inflammation and Infection, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared first authorship; these authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2402; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082402
Received: 25 June 2020 / Revised: 3 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 11 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
Chronic low-grade inflammation negatively impacts health and is associated with aging and obesity, among other health outcomes. A large number of immune mediators are present in the digestive tract and interact with gut bacteria to impact immune function. The gut microbiota itself is also an important initiator of inflammation, for example by releasing compounds such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that may influence cytokine production and immune cell function. Certain nutrients (e.g., probiotics, ω-3 fatty acids [FA]) may increase gut microbiota diversity and reduce inflammation. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, among others, prevent gut hyperpermeability and lower LPS-dependent chronic low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, ω-3 FA generate positive effects on inflammation-related conditions (e.g., hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes) by interacting with immune, metabolic, and inflammatory pathways. Ω-3 FA also increase LPS-suppressing bacteria (i.e., Bifidobacteria) and decrease LPS-producing bacteria (i.e., Enterobacteria). Additionally, ω-3 FA appear to promote short-chain FA production. Therefore, combining probiotics with ω-3 FA presents a promising strategy to promote beneficial immune regulation via the gut microbiota, with potential beneficial effects on conditions of inflammatory origin, as commonly experienced by aged and obese individuals, as well as improvements in gut-brain-axis communication. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids; inflammation; gut microbiota; gut-brain axis; dysbiosis probiotics; omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids; inflammation; gut microbiota; gut-brain axis; dysbiosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hutchinson, A.N.; Tingö, L.; Brummer, R.J. The Potential Effects of Probiotics and ω-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2402. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082402

AMA Style

Hutchinson AN, Tingö L, Brummer RJ. The Potential Effects of Probiotics and ω-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2402. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082402

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hutchinson, Ashley N., Lina Tingö, and Robert J. Brummer 2020. "The Potential Effects of Probiotics and ω-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2402. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082402

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