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Vitamin K2 Needs an RDI Separate from Vitamin K1

Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Division of Nephrology, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany
International Science & Health Foundation, 30-134 Krakow, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1852;
Received: 25 May 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 21 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology and Pathology of Vitamin K Intake)
Vitamin K and its essential role in coagulation (vitamin K [Koagulation]) have been well established and accepted the world over. Many countries have a Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamin K based on early research, and its necessary role in the activation of vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteins is known. In the past few decades, the role of vitamin K-dependent proteins in processes beyond coagulation has been discovered. Various isoforms of vitamin K have been identified, and vitamin K2 specifically has been highlighted for its long half-life and extrahepatic activity, whereas the dietary form vitamin K1 has a shorter half-life. In this review, we highlight the specific activity of vitamin K2 based upon proposed frameworks necessary for a bioactive substance to be recommended for an RDI. Vitamin K2 meets all these criteria and should be considered for a specific dietary recommendation intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K; vitamin K1; vitamin K2; RDI; menaquinone; vitamin K-dependent proteins vitamin K; vitamin K1; vitamin K2; RDI; menaquinone; vitamin K-dependent proteins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akbulut, A.C.; Pavlic, A.; Petsophonsakul, P.; Halder, M.; Maresz, K.; Kramann, R.; Schurgers, L. Vitamin K2 Needs an RDI Separate from Vitamin K1. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1852.

AMA Style

Akbulut AC, Pavlic A, Petsophonsakul P, Halder M, Maresz K, Kramann R, Schurgers L. Vitamin K2 Needs an RDI Separate from Vitamin K1. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1852.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akbulut, Asim C.; Pavlic, Angelina; Petsophonsakul, Ploingarm; Halder, Maurice; Maresz, Katarzyna; Kramann, Rafael; Schurgers, Leon. 2020. "Vitamin K2 Needs an RDI Separate from Vitamin K1" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1852.

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