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Review

Links between Nutrition, Infectious Diseases, and Microbiota: Emerging Technologies and Opportunities for Human-Focused Research

1
Centre for Nutrition and Health, Universidad Europea del Atlántico (UEA), 39001 Santander, Spain
2
Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science Group, CITACA, CACTI, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Molecolari, Facoltà di Medicina, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
4
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
5
College of Food Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China
6
International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061827
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
The interaction between nutrition and human infectious diseases has always been recognized. With the emergence of molecular tools and post-genomics, high-resolution sequencing technologies, the gut microbiota has been emerging as a key moderator in the complex interplay between nutrients, human body, and infections. Much of the host–microbial and nutrition research is currently based on animals or simplistic in vitro models. Although traditional in vivo and in vitro models have helped to develop mechanistic hypotheses and assess the causality of the host–microbiota interactions, they often fail to faithfully recapitulate the complexity of the human nutrient–microbiome axis in gastrointestinal homeostasis and infections. Over the last decade, remarkable progress in tissue engineering, stem cell biology, microfluidics, sequencing technologies, and computing power has taken place, which has produced a new generation of human-focused, relevant, and predictive tools. These tools, which include patient-derived organoids, organs-on-a-chip, computational analyses, and models, together with multi-omics readouts, represent novel and exciting equipment to advance the research into microbiota, infectious diseases, and nutrition from a human-biology-based perspective. After considering some limitations of the conventional in vivo and in vitro approaches, in this review, we present the main novel available and emerging tools that are suitable for designing human-oriented research. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; infectious diseases; nutrition; human-based methods; gut-on-a-chip; gut-organoids; third-generation sequencing microbiota; infectious diseases; nutrition; human-based methods; gut-on-a-chip; gut-organoids; third-generation sequencing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cassotta, M.; Forbes-Hernández, T.Y.; Calderón Iglesias, R.; Ruiz, R.; Elexpuru Zabaleta, M.; Giampieri, F.; Battino, M. Links between Nutrition, Infectious Diseases, and Microbiota: Emerging Technologies and Opportunities for Human-Focused Research. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061827

AMA Style

Cassotta M, Forbes-Hernández TY, Calderón Iglesias R, Ruiz R, Elexpuru Zabaleta M, Giampieri F, Battino M. Links between Nutrition, Infectious Diseases, and Microbiota: Emerging Technologies and Opportunities for Human-Focused Research. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061827

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cassotta, Manuela, Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Maria Elexpuru Zabaleta, Francesca Giampieri, and Maurizio Battino. 2020. "Links between Nutrition, Infectious Diseases, and Microbiota: Emerging Technologies and Opportunities for Human-Focused Research" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061827

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