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Open AccessArticle

Gender, Age, Geographical Area, Food Neophobia and Their Relationships with the Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet: New Insights from a Large Population Cross-Sectional Study

1
Institute for Bioeconomy, CNR, National Research Council, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
2
CREA, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Center Food & Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, Via Donizetti 6, 50144 Florence, Italy
4
Center Agriculture Food Environment University of Trento via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
5
Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
6
University of Gastronomic Sciences, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele 9, 12042 Pollenzo, CN, Italy
7
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, piazza Goidanich 60, 47521 Cesena (FC), Italy
8
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy
9
Department of Agricultural sciences, University of Naples Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
10
Department of Biology, DBAF, University of Basilicata, Via Nazario Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061778
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 10 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition, Education and Dietetics)
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with many health benefits. The association between the MD and food neophobia (FN) is still unexplored in adults. The present cross-sectional study was aimed to explore the relationships between adherence to the MD, FN, and sociodemographic variables in a large Italian cohort. Familiarity and frequency use (FFI) of prototypical and non-prototypical Mediterranean foods were used to calculate a new adherence index: the Italian Taste Mediterranean Index (ITMI). The FFI of all Mediterranean foods increased with age, while butter, soft drinks, red/cured meat, and sweets were more common in younger people. Accordingly, ITMI increased with age (F2,2384 = 54.11; p < 0.0001). Women recorded a higher ITMI (6.70) than men (6.10). Individuals with high FN showed higher FFI for soft drinks and sweets and lower ones for most typical MD foods, than individuals with low FNs. A decrease of ITMI was recorded with the increase of the FN(F2,2384 = 22.84; p < 0.0001). With ageing, ITMI increased even in individuals with a high FN. The results suggest that FN may negatively affect adherence to the MD, lowering its potential health benefits, in the adult population. Monitoring of food habits, dietary education, and anxiety management, may be valuable tools to control FN and support the adherence to the MD. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet quality; food rejection; healthy eating; Mediterranean eating pattern; socio-demographics diet quality; food rejection; healthy eating; Mediterranean eating pattern; socio-demographics
MDPI and ACS Style

Predieri, S.; Sinesio, F.; Monteleone, E.; Spinelli, S.; Cianciabella, M.; Daniele, G.M.; Dinnella, C.; Gasperi, F.; Endrizzi, I.; Torri, L.; Gallina Toschi, T.; Bendini, A.; Pagliarini, E.; Cattaneo, C.; Di Monaco, R.; Vitaglione, P.; Condelli, N.; Laureati, M. Gender, Age, Geographical Area, Food Neophobia and Their Relationships with the Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet: New Insights from a Large Population Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1778. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061778

AMA Style

Predieri S, Sinesio F, Monteleone E, Spinelli S, Cianciabella M, Daniele GM, Dinnella C, Gasperi F, Endrizzi I, Torri L, Gallina Toschi T, Bendini A, Pagliarini E, Cattaneo C, Di Monaco R, Vitaglione P, Condelli N, Laureati M. Gender, Age, Geographical Area, Food Neophobia and Their Relationships with the Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet: New Insights from a Large Population Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1778. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061778

Chicago/Turabian Style

Predieri, Stefano; Sinesio, Fiorella; Monteleone, Erminio; Spinelli, Sara; Cianciabella, Marta; Daniele, Giulia M.; Dinnella, Caterina; Gasperi, Flavia; Endrizzi, Isabella; Torri, Luisa; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Bendini, Alessandra; Pagliarini, Ella; Cattaneo, Camilla; Di Monaco, Rossella; Vitaglione, Paola; Condelli, Nicola; Laureati, Monica. 2020. "Gender, Age, Geographical Area, Food Neophobia and Their Relationships with the Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet: New Insights from a Large Population Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1778. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061778

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