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Open AccessArticle

Eating Vegetables First at Start of Meal and Food Intake among Preschool Children in Japan

1
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
2
Department of Global Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
3
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
4
Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
5
Department of Health and Welfare Services, National Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6 Minami, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0197, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061762
Received: 13 May 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Obesity and Nutrition Promotion Intervention)
Eating behavior is an important aspect for dietary quality and long-term health. This study examined associations between eating vegetables first at a meal and food intakes among preschool children in Tokyo, Japan. We used cross-sectional data of 135 preschool children from seven nursery schools in Adachi City, Tokyo, Japan. Caregivers completed a survey on child’s eating behaviors and a diet questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine frequency of eating vegetables first at a meal and food intakes; percent difference and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were presented. Overall, 25.2% of children reported eating vegetables first at a meal every time, 52.6% sometimes, and 22.2% not often or never. In the multivariate analysis, higher vegetable intake remained significant after adjusting for other covariates (compared with the group of eating vegetables first not often or never, the group reported sometimes: 27%, 95% CI: 0–63%; the group reported every time: 93%, 95% CI: 43–159%). No significant difference in intake by frequency categories of eating vegetables first was observed for other food groups, including fruits, meat, fish, cereals, and sweets. Children eating vegetables first at a meal more was associated with higher total intake of vegetables compared with children who did not eat vegetables first, among Japanese preschool children. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary habit; vegetable consumption; food intake; preschool children; Japan; nutrition dietary habit; vegetable consumption; food intake; preschool children; Japan; nutrition
MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.; Tani, Y.; Tobias, D.K.; Ochi, M.; Fujiwara, T. Eating Vegetables First at Start of Meal and Food Intake among Preschool Children in Japan. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1762.

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