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Article

The Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Macrovascular and Microvascular Endothelial Function Is Not Affected by the Provision of Caloric Restriction in Women with Obesity: A Randomized Study

1
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965, USA
3
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061649
Received: 18 April 2020 / Revised: 21 May 2020 / Accepted: 29 May 2020 / Published: 2 June 2020
Obesity impairs both macro- and microvascular endothelial function due to decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide. Current evidence on the effect of low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on endothelial function is conflicting and confounded by the provision of caloric restriction (CR). We tested the hypothesis that LC without CR diet, but not LC with CR diet, would improve macro- and microvascular endothelial function in women with obesity. Twenty-one healthy women with obesity (age: 33 ± 2 years, body mass index: 33.0 ± 0.6 kg/m2; mean ± SEM) were randomly assigned to receive either a LC diet (~10% carbohydrate calories) with CR (n = 12; 500 calorie/day deficit) or a LC diet without CR (n = 9) and completed the 6-week diet intervention. After the intervention, macrovascular endothelial function, measured as brachial artery flow-mediated dilation did not change (7.3 ± 0.9% to 8.0 ± 1.1%, p = 0.7). On the other hand, following the LC diet intervention, regardless of CR, blocking nitric oxide production decreased microvascular endothelial function, measured by arteriolar flow-induced dilation (p ≤ 0.02 for both diets) and the magnitude was more than baseline (p ≤ 0.04). These data suggest improved NO contributions following the intervention. In conclusion, a 6-week LC diet, regardless of CR, may improve microvascular, but not macrovascular endothelial function, via increasing bioavailability of nitric oxide in women with obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-carbohydrate diet; hypocaloric; isocaloric; women health; obesity; conduit artery; microvasculature; nitric oxide; cardiovascular risks; primary prevention low-carbohydrate diet; hypocaloric; isocaloric; women health; obesity; conduit artery; microvasculature; nitric oxide; cardiovascular risks; primary prevention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hwang, C.-L.; Ranieri, C.; Szczurek, M.R.; Ellythy, A.M.; Elokda, A.; Mahmoud, A.M.; Phillips, S.A. The Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Macrovascular and Microvascular Endothelial Function Is Not Affected by the Provision of Caloric Restriction in Women with Obesity: A Randomized Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1649. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061649

AMA Style

Hwang C-L, Ranieri C, Szczurek MR, Ellythy AM, Elokda A, Mahmoud AM, Phillips SA. The Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Macrovascular and Microvascular Endothelial Function Is Not Affected by the Provision of Caloric Restriction in Women with Obesity: A Randomized Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1649. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061649

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hwang, Chueh-Lung, Christine Ranieri, Mary R. Szczurek, Assem M. Ellythy, Ahmed Elokda, Abeer M. Mahmoud, and Shane A. Phillips. 2020. "The Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Macrovascular and Microvascular Endothelial Function Is Not Affected by the Provision of Caloric Restriction in Women with Obesity: A Randomized Study" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1649. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061649

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