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Open AccessArticle

The Effects of Aronia melanocarpa Extract on Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats, and Quantitative Analysis of Major Constituents Depending on Extract Conditions

1
Gyeongnam Department of Environment & Toxicology, Korea Institute of Toxicology, 17 Jegok-gil, Munsan-eup, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do 52834, Korea
2
College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
3
Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plant Resources, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju 52725, Korea
4
Department of Oceanography, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 54150, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061575
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 25 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 28 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of A. melanocarpa on testosterone propionate (TP)-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Wistar rats. Moreover, the bioactive constituents in the extract were determined using LC/MS and HPLC analyses. The dried fruits of A. melanocarpa were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) under different extract conditions (temperature, 30 °C or 100 °C; extract solvent, 60% or 100% ethanol) to yield four extracts (T1~T4). Of the four A. melanocarpa extracts, T1 extracted under the condition of 100% ethanol/low temperature (30 °C) exhibited the greatest inhibitory activity on TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. The administration of T1 (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) for six weeks attenuated TP-induced prostate enlargement and reduced the levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-reductase in both serum and prostate tissue. The suppression of PCNA mRNA expression in prostate tissue was remarkable in T1-treated rats. In LC/MS analysis, the levels of main anthocyanins and phenolics were significantly higher in T1 than in the other extracts. Furthermore, the quantitative study showed that the contents of cyanidin-3-glucose and cyanidin-3-xylose in T1 exhibited 1.27~1.67 and 1.10~1.26 folds higher compared to those in the other extracts. These findings demonstrated that A. melanocarpa extract containing anthocyanins as bioactive constituents attenuated the development of testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia, and suggested that this extract has therapeutic potential to treat prostate enlargement and BPH. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa; benign prostatic hyperplasia; 5-alpha-reductase; testosterone; androgen receptor; constituents Aronia melanocarpa; benign prostatic hyperplasia; 5-alpha-reductase; testosterone; androgen receptor; constituents
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Kim, N.-H.; Jegal, J.; Kim, Y.N.; Heo, J.-D.; Rho, J.-R.; Yang, M.H.; Jeong, E.J. The Effects of Aronia melanocarpa Extract on Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats, and Quantitative Analysis of Major Constituents Depending on Extract Conditions. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1575.

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