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Open AccessReview

Use of Non-Pharmacological Supplementations in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Critical Review

1
Child Psychopathology Unit, Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, 23842 Bosisio Parini, Italy
2
PhD Program in Neuroscience, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Psychology, University of Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
4
Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, 23842 Bosisio Parini, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061573
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 25 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 28 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Brain across the Lifespan)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents, with environmental and biological causal influences. Pharmacological medication is the first choice in ADHD treatment; recently, many studies have concentrated on dietary supplementation approaches to address nutritional deficiencies, to which part of non-responses to medications have been imputed. This review aims to evaluate the efficacy of non-pharmacological supplementations in children or adolescents with ADHD. We reviewed 42 randomized controlled trials comprised of the following supplementation categories: polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), peptides and amino acids derivatives, single micronutrients, micronutrients mix, plant extracts and herbal supplementations, and probiotics. The reviewed studies applied heterogeneous methodologies, thus making it arduous to depict a systematic overview. No clear effect on single cognitive, affective, or behavioral domain was found for any supplementation category. Studies on PUFAs and micronutrients found symptomatology improvements. Peptides and amino acids derivatives, plant extracts, herbal supplementation, and probiotics represent innovative research fields and preliminary results may be promising. In conclusion, such findings, if confirmed through future research, should represent evidence for the efficacy of dietary supplementation as a support to standard pharmacological and psychological therapies in children and adolescents with ADHD. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary supplementations; non-pharmacological treatment; rehabilitation; neurodevelopment; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); children; adolescents dietary supplementations; non-pharmacological treatment; rehabilitation; neurodevelopment; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); children; adolescents
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Rosi, E.; Grazioli, S.; Villa, F.M.; Mauri, M.; Gazzola, E.; Pozzi, M.; Molteni, M.; Nobile, M. Use of Non-Pharmacological Supplementations in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Critical Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1573.

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