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Review

Effects of Menu Labeling Policies on Transnational Restaurant Chains to Promote a Healthy Diet: A Scoping Review to Inform Policy and Research

1
Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Department of Non-Communicable Diseases and Mental Health, Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization, Washington, DC 20037, USA
3
Center for Public Administration and Policy, School of Public and International Affairs, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061544
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 19 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 26 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Labeling: Analysis, Understanding, and Perception)
There is insufficient evidence that restaurant menu labeling policies are cost-effective strategies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Evidence suggests that menu labeling has a modest effect on calories purchased and consumed. No review has been published on the effect of menu labeling policies on transnational restaurant chains globally. This study conducted a two-step scoping review to map and describe the effect of restaurant menu labeling policies on menu reformulation. First, we identified national, state, and municipal menu labeling policies in countries from global databases. Second, we searched four databases (i.e., PubMed, CINHAL/EBSCO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) for peer-reviewed studies and gray-literature sources in English and Spanish (2000–2020). Step 1 identified three voluntary and eight mandatory menu labeling policies primarily for energy disclosures for 11 upper-middle and high-income countries, but none for low- or middle-income countries. Step 2 identified 15 of 577 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The analysis showed reductions in energy for newly introduced menu items only in the United States. We suggest actions for governments, civil society organizations, and the restaurant businesses to develop, implement, and evaluate comprehensive menu labeling policies to determine whether these may reduce obesity and NCD risks worldwide. View Full-Text
Keywords: food labeling; menu labeling; nutrition declaration; food and nutrition policy; restaurant chains; reformulation; serving size; energy; obesity food labeling; menu labeling; nutrition declaration; food and nutrition policy; restaurant chains; reformulation; serving size; energy; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rincón-Gallardo Patiño, S.; Zhou, M.; Da Silva Gomes, F.; Lemaire, R.; Hedrick, V.; Serrano, E.; Kraak, V.I. Effects of Menu Labeling Policies on Transnational Restaurant Chains to Promote a Healthy Diet: A Scoping Review to Inform Policy and Research. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1544. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061544

AMA Style

Rincón-Gallardo Patiño S, Zhou M, Da Silva Gomes F, Lemaire R, Hedrick V, Serrano E, Kraak VI. Effects of Menu Labeling Policies on Transnational Restaurant Chains to Promote a Healthy Diet: A Scoping Review to Inform Policy and Research. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1544. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061544

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rincón-Gallardo Patiño, Sofía, Mi Zhou, Fabio Da Silva Gomes, Robin Lemaire, Valisa Hedrick, Elena Serrano, and Vivica I. Kraak. 2020. "Effects of Menu Labeling Policies on Transnational Restaurant Chains to Promote a Healthy Diet: A Scoping Review to Inform Policy and Research" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1544. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061544

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