Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing–remitting systemic disease of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by an inflammatory process that requires lifelong treatment. The underlying causes of IBD are still unclear, as this heterogeneous disorder results from a complex interplay between genetic variability, the host immune system and environmental factors. The current knowledge recognizes diet as a risk factor for the development of IBD and attributes a substantial pathogenic role to the intestinal dysbiosis inducing an aberrant mucosal immune response in genetically predisposed individuals. This review focused on the clinical evidence available that considers the impact of some nutrients on IBD onset and the role of different diets in the management of IBD and their effects on the gut microbiota composition. The effects of the Specific Carbohydrate Diet, low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet, gluten free diet, anti-inflammatory diet and Mediterranean diet are investigated with regard to their impact on microbiota and on the evolution of the disease. At present, no clear indications toward a specific diet are available but the assessment of dysbiosis prior to the recommendation of a specific diet should become a standard clinical approach in order to achieve a personalized therapy.
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