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Article

Flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum L.) Supplementation in Patients Undergoing Lipoprotein Apheresis for Severe Hyperlipidemia—A Pilot Study

1
Department of Pathophysiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań, Poland
2
1st Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Gdansk, Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie 3a, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
3
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie 3a, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
4
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Institutional Research, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041137
Received: 24 March 2020 / Revised: 14 April 2020 / Accepted: 15 April 2020 / Published: 18 April 2020
Being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is thought to be able to decrease lipid levels and dampen inflammation. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine whether flaxseed supplementation could improve the profiles of lipids and inflammatory mediators in patients with severe hyperlipidemia resistant to conventional lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy and requiring lipoprotein apheresis. To this end, six patients received, blindly—in addition to their normal lipoprotein apheresis regimen—a 10-week dietary supplementation with flaxseed (28 g/d) administered in biscuits. This was followed by a 10-week washed out-period and a 10-week supplementation phase with whole wheat placebo. Blood samples were collected at the end of each phase, before the lipoprotein apheresis session. The primary endpoint was the lipid profile and the secondary endpoints were the concentrations of inflammatory mediators and tolerability. Flaxseed supplementation was well-tolerated and resulted in a consistent and significant decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The median (and range) percentage decrease was 11.5% (0–18.8) and 7.3% (4.4–26.6), for cholesterol (p = 0.015) and LDL-C (p = 0.003), respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant effect of flaxseed on lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations. These observations indicate that flaxseed can produce a cholesterol- and LDL-lowering effect in patients treated with lipoprotein apheresis. Thus, flaxseed supplementation may help to control cholesterol in this patient population. The flaxseed supplementation protocol applied may be of use for further adequately-powered studies to validate and extend our findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: flaxseed; lipoprotein apheresis flaxseed; lipoprotein apheresis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanikowska, D.; Korybalska, K.; Mickiewicz, A.; Rutkowski, R.; Kuchta, A.; Sato, M.; Kreft, E.; Fijałkowski, M.; Gruchała, M.; Jankowski, M.; Bręborowicz, A.; Witowski, J. Flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum L.) Supplementation in Patients Undergoing Lipoprotein Apheresis for Severe Hyperlipidemia—A Pilot Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1137. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041137

AMA Style

Kanikowska D, Korybalska K, Mickiewicz A, Rutkowski R, Kuchta A, Sato M, Kreft E, Fijałkowski M, Gruchała M, Jankowski M, Bręborowicz A, Witowski J. Flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum L.) Supplementation in Patients Undergoing Lipoprotein Apheresis for Severe Hyperlipidemia—A Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1137. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041137

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanikowska, Dominika, Katarzyna Korybalska, Agnieszka Mickiewicz, Rafał Rutkowski, Agnieszka Kuchta, Maki Sato, Ewelina Kreft, Marcin Fijałkowski, Marcin Gruchała, Maciej Jankowski, Andrzej Bręborowicz, and Janusz Witowski. 2020. "Flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum L.) Supplementation in Patients Undergoing Lipoprotein Apheresis for Severe Hyperlipidemia—A Pilot Study" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1137. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041137

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