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Dietary Assessment Methods in Military and Veteran Populations: A Scoping Review

School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia
Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia
Food and Nutrition, Land Division, Defence Science and Technology Group, Scottsdale 7260, Australia
The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2042, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 769;
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 14 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Optimal dietary intake is important for the health and physical performance of military personnel. For military veterans, the complex nature of transition into civilian life and sub-optimal dietary intake is a leading contributor to the increased burden of disease. A scoping review was undertaken to determine what is known about the assessment and reporting of dietary intakes within both military and veteran populations. In addition, this review determines if studies reporting on the dietary intake of military personnel or veterans include comparisons with dietary guidelines. Six databases were searched to identify papers published from the database inception to April 2019. Observational and intervention studies were searched to identify if they assessed and reported whole dietary intake data, reported data exclusively for a military or veteran population, and included only healthy populations. A total of 89 studies were included. The majority of studies used one dietary assessment method (n = 76, 85%) with fewer using multiple methods (n = 13, 15%). The most frequent methodology used was food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) (n = 40, 45%) followed by 24-hour recalls (n = 8, 9%) and food records (n = 8, 9%). The main dietary outcomes reported were macronutrients: carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol (n = 66, 74%) with total energy intake reported in n = 59 (66%). Fifty four (61%) studies reported a comparison with country-specific dietary guidelines and 14 (16%) reported a comparison with the country-specific military guidelines. In conclusion, dietary intake in military settings is most commonly assessed via FFQs and 24-hour recalls. Dietary intake reporting is mainly focused around intakes of energy and macronutrients. Most studies compare against dietary guidelines, however, comparison to specific military dietary guidelines is minimal. View Full-Text
Keywords: scoping review; defense; military; diet; dietary assessment scoping review; defense; military; diet; dietary assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Collins, R.A.; Baker, B.; Coyle, D.H.; Rollo, M.E.; Burrows, T.L. Dietary Assessment Methods in Military and Veteran Populations: A Scoping Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 769.

AMA Style

Collins RA, Baker B, Coyle DH, Rollo ME, Burrows TL. Dietary Assessment Methods in Military and Veteran Populations: A Scoping Review. Nutrients. 2020; 12(3):769.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Collins, Rebecca A., Bradley Baker, Daisy H. Coyle, Megan E. Rollo, and Tracy L. Burrows 2020. "Dietary Assessment Methods in Military and Veteran Populations: A Scoping Review" Nutrients 12, no. 3: 769.

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