Next Article in Journal
Risk Factors for Anemia and Micronutrient Deficiencies among Women of Reproductive Age—The Impact of the Wheat Flour Fortification Program in Uzbekistan
Previous Article in Journal
Social Stratification, Diet Diversity and Malnutrition among Preschoolers: A Survey of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Rice Hull Extract (RHE) Suppresses Adiposity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Inhibits Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
Open AccessArticle

Differential Impact of Calcium and Vitamin D on Body Composition Changes in Post-Menopausal Women Following a Restricted Energy Diet and Exercise Program

Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, Lindenwood University, Saint Charles, MO 63301, USA
School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Edward via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Exercise Science Program, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
Matrix Medical Net, New York, NY 10011, USA
Exercise and Sports Science Department, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, TX 76513, USA
Health, Human Performance, and Recreation Department, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA
Department of Biology, McClennan Community College, Waco, TX 76798, USA
Department of Physical Therapy, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC 27506, USA
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 713;
Received: 12 January 2020 / Revised: 27 February 2020 / Accepted: 4 March 2020 / Published: 7 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have been posited to improve body composition and different formulations of calcium may impact bioavailability. However, data are lacking regarding the combinatorial effects of exercise, diet, and calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation on body composition changes in post-menopausal women. Herein, 128 post-menopausal women (51.3 ± 4.5 years, 36.4 ± 5.7 kg/m2, 46.2 ± 4.5% fat) were assigned to diet and supplement groups while participating in a supervised circuit-style resistance-training program (3 d/week) over a 14-week period. Diet groups included: (1) normal diet (CTL), (2) a low-calorie, higher protein diet (LCHP; 1600 kcal/day, 15% carbohydrates, 55% protein, 30% fat), and (3) a low-calorie, higher carbohydrate diet (LCHC; 1600 kcal/day, 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein, 30% fat). Supplement groups consisted of: (1) maltodextrin (PLA), (2) 800 mg/day of calcium carbonate (Ca), and (3) 800 mg/day of calcium citrate and malate and 400 IU/day of vitamin D (Ca+D). Fasting blood samples, body composition, resting energy expenditure, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance measures were assessed. Data were analyzed by mixed factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and presented as mean change from baseline [95% CI]. Exercise training promoted significant improvements in strength, peak aerobic capacity, and blood lipids. Dieting resulted in greater losses of body mass (CTL −0.4 ± 2.4; LCHC −5.1 ± 4.2; LCHP −3.8 ± 4.2 kg) and fat mass (CTL −1.4 ± 1.8; LCHC −3.7 ± 3.7; LCHP −3.4 ± 3.4 kg). When compared to LCHC-PLA, the LCHC + Ca combination led to greater losses in body mass (PLA −4.1 [−6.1, −2.1], Ca −6.4 [−8.1, −4.7], Ca+D −4.4 [−6.4, −2.5] kg). In comparison to LCHC-Ca, the LCHC-Ca+D led to an improved maintenance of fat-free mass (PLA −0.3 [−1.4, 0.7], Ca −1.4 [−2.3, −0.5], Ca+D 0.4 [−0.6, 1.5] kg) and a greater loss of body fat (PLA −2.3 [−3.4, −1.1], Ca −1.3 [−2.3, −0.3], Ca+D −3.6 [−4.8, −2.5]%). Alternatively, no significant differences in weight loss or body composition resulted when adding Ca or Ca+D to the LCHP regimen in comparison to when PLA was added to the LCHP diet. When combined with an energy-restricted, higher carbohydrate diet, adding 800 mg of Ca carbonate stimulated greater body mass loss compared to when a PLA was added. Alternatively, adding Ca+D to the LCHC diet promoted greater% fat changes and attenuation of fat-free mass loss. Our results expand upon current literature regarding the impact of calcium supplementation with dieting and regular exercise. This data highlights that different forms of calcium in combination with an energy restricted, higher carbohydrate diet may trigger changes in body mass or body composition while no impact of calcium supplementation was observed when participants followed an energy restricted, higher protein diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: weight loss; dietary supplement; fat loss; training adaptations weight loss; dietary supplement; fat loss; training adaptations
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kerksick, C.M.; Roberts, M.D.; Campbell, B.I.; Galbreath, M.M.; Taylor, L.W.; Wilborn, C.D.; Lee, A.; Dove, J.; Bunn, J.W.; Rasmussen, C.J.; Kreider, R.B. Differential Impact of Calcium and Vitamin D on Body Composition Changes in Post-Menopausal Women Following a Restricted Energy Diet and Exercise Program. Nutrients 2020, 12, 713.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop